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The Secrets of Jujitsu, A Complete Course in Self Defense


 

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By Captain Allan Corstorphin Smith, U.S.A.
Winner of the Black Belt, Japan, 1916. Instructor of Hand-to-Hand Fighting, THE INFANTRY SCHOOL, Camp Benning, Columbus, Georgia and at United States Training Camps and Cantonments, 1917 and 1918.
In Seven Books.
BOOK ONE.
STAHARA PUBLISHING COMPANY
Columbus, Georgia, 1920.
***
This electronic version is copyright EJMAS © 2000. All rights reserved.
Contributed by Thomas J. Militello, a 15-year member of Astoria, New York's non-profit Horangi Taekwondo Dojang, which is headed by James Robison.
Readers interested in seeing film images should note the following film held by the National Archives and Record Administration:
NWDNM(m)-111-H-1180.
Title: Physical and Bayonet Training, 1918.
Scope and Content: Recruits at Camp Gordon, Georgia receive detailed instruction in boxing and jiu-jitsu. Wrestling and jiu-jitsu holds are used against a foe with a bayonet. Troops do calisthenics and play rough games calculated to make them physically fit.
35mm film, 15 minutes
See also Don W. Farrant, "Vintage Jujitsu: World War I Style," .
Judging from responses from the US Army historians at Forts Myer and Benning, little biographical information is available concerning Captain Smith, whose name (and kilt) suggests Scottish heritage. Therefore readers with additional information are requested to contact the editor at jrsvinth@juno.com .



Presentation of the Black Belt to Captain Allan Smith at the Kodokwan (Central Jujitsu College), Tokyo, Japan, January 9, 1916. From a painting by a Japanese artist. [Ed. note: When Scottish judoka George Kerr wore his kilt to the Kodokan 44 years later, Japanese kept trying to see what was underneath, and afterwards Kerr swore not to do that again.]


FOREWORD
Captain Smith, who has been employed as an instructor in Hand-to-Hand Fighting at The Infantry School, has performed an important service in preparing his series of books, "The Secrets of Jujitsu."
It is, in my opinion, highly desirable that American Infantry be trained in all forms of personal combat that might be used against them.
PAUL B. MALONE
Colonel, Infantry
Assistant Commandant
HEADQUARTERS
THE INFANTRY SCHOOL
CAMP BENNING, GEORGIA
JULY 30, 1920.

Japanese banquet after the ceremony in the Central Jujitsu College; Captain Smith in Scottish Highland Costume, second from right

JUJITSU IS BOTH SELF-DEFENSE AND MENTAL TRAINING
Jujitsu as a means of self-defense will teach you to take care of yourself in dangerous situations whether armed or unarmed.
It is a valuable study as it trains you to evade the impact of an opponent's strength and attack him at a point where he can bring only 20 per cent of his strength to bear. It teaches you to unbalance your opponent.
Conversely it trains you to retain your own balance and to bring 100 percent of your strength to bear in every effort you make. A man trained in jujitsu will instinctively act on this principle in everything he does whether engaged in a physical contest or a mental one.
A course of jujitsu therefore will leave its permanent mark on your mentality. It teaches you to retain your poise in the arena where the contests are physical, brawn against brawn, or in the public forum, where mind is pitted against mind, intellect against intellect.
It has another and more immediate result in the resources of self-defense that will be at your immediate disposal whenever you are attacked, or whenever you go to the rescue of someone else.
A strong man by its aid will be enabled to use his strength in a more workmanlike manner, and a weak man will be able to discount the superior strength of his adversary.
A woman equipped with this science will no longer be at the mercy of a ruffian. She will furthermore retain her presence of mind and keep cool, in an emergency.


THE COURSE CONSISTS OF: --
BOOK
1. An introductory course showing:
That the secret of jujitsu is in the Stahara.
How to use the Stahara.
How to train the Stahara. (28 photos.)
2. Defense when a man attacks you by seizing you around waist. There are five tricks in this series, and they provide a splendid means of exercise. (18 photos.)
Defense when a man attacks your throat. After mastering this lesson, the weakest woman will be safe from such an attack. (17 photos.)
3. Defense when opponent seizes your wrists. Teaching how to lever them out by the strength of your body. This lesson trains you to use your body as a whole. (26 photos.)
4. Defense when attacked from behind. By having your practice partner attack from behind, you master a series of tricks that will be useful in any situation of attack or defense. (34 photos.)
5. Defense when attacked by knife, club, pistol, kicks, etc. This lesson teaches you quick thinking and gives you presence of mind in an emergency. (44 photos.)
6. Taking prisoners, hammerlocks, and a number of tricks whereby the weaker man can get the stronger. These are intensely interesting tricks, most of them published for the first time. (49 photos.)
7. Three of the secret grips of Japan never yet published in any book, Japanese or otherwise.
These tricks give you the power of life or death. The method of instruction allows them to be practised as an interesting pastime, and with absolute safety. (38 photos.)
(TOTAL 254 photos.)


LESSON 1.
This lesson illustrates the principle of putting the strength of your whole body into everything you do instead of merely using the strength of the particular hand or arm which is immediately concerned in the operation.


UPWARD WRIST ESCAPE

Assailant seizes both your wrists with his thumbs above and his fingers below.
(In practising this, at first, Assailant must "stay put." He knows what you are going to do but must not take advantage of his knowledge to lower his body also and thus prevent your escape. Afterwards you will be able to escape more quickly than he can prevent you.)

Bring palms of your hands together. Step forward with one foot, lowering your body until the elbows are well bent and below his hands.



Have your elbows in front of, and touching, your abdomen. With an upward and forward movement of your abdomen force your wrists up and out of his grasp, keeping your hands rigid. All this done in one motion and with great rapidity.
Practise slowly at first to get the movement right. Compare each position you take with corresponding photograph.
NOTE: In Fig. 1, the strength of your arms alone would not suffice to pull your wrists out of the grasp of a stronger man.
Instead of trying to free your wrists by the strength of your arms, you force them out by the strength of the abdomen and the weight of the body.
We will train you to use this principle in everything you do. It is called the principle of the Stahara.


WHAT THE STAHARA IS
The Stahara is the Abdominal Region. It includes the Diaphragm, the Abdominal Muscles, the Solar Plexus and the Center of Gravity.
This course will train you not only to understand the Stahara principle but to act on it instinctively. You can then use your own strength better; you can handle other men better.
This principle properly applied will instantly give you increased physical power. It will endow you with greater mental control and will give you a stronger personality.


THE WEAKEST MAN'S STAHARA IS STRONGER THAN THE STRONGEST MAN'S ARM
Always play the strength of your Stahara against the strength of your opponent's arm. This is simply the strategy of Napoleon who attacked the enemy's weakest point with all the force he could concentrate.
Instead of memorizing this as an abstract principle, visualize it in the concrete instance of the simple trick exemplified on the preceding page.
This is a typical example of how the Stahara principle enters into the execution of every trick in this course.
The leverage the Stahara gives you in the previous trick is obvious, and easily applied. In other tricks it is not so obvious and the student may not see the connection at first between the Stahara and the trick.
The connection is there, however, and it only requires to be discovered and applied.
The system of teaching you to use your Stahara in the most obvious instances, at first, enables you to apply it in the less obvious cases.
An increased ability to use your body in this way will come with the progressive practice of this course.

The Stahara fully developed..
Photo of Captain Smith taken just previous to his winning of the Black Belt, Tokyo, Japan, 1915.


THE SECRET OF JUJITSU IS THE STAHARA
The throws of jujitsu are achieved by the mechanical force of your center of gravity playing against opponent's center of gravity.
The center of gravity is contained in the lower abdomen, therefore the proper disposition of your lower abdomen is the most important factor in any given trick.
Conversely the object of your exertions against an opponent is to out-think his center of gravity, by maneuvering him into a position where his lower abdomen is off balance.
An old Japanese master, mentioned in the chapter on "A demonstration in Pain-bearing" (which will follow in due course), told me once when I was very much discouraged at the progress was making, that


Hyaku ii-yasushi
Ichi ii-gatashi.
Which, being interpreted, means:
The hundred tricks are easy to learn
But the one principle is difficult to learn.
On asking him to be kind enough to impart this one principle to me, he informed me that that could only be acquired after years of practice.
This elusive principle, which the Japanese professors make you search out for yourself, this course imparts from the start by means of Stahara training.


HOW THE WORD "STAHARA" ORIGINATED
When I commenced to teach jujitsu in Yokohama, Japan, in every trick I showed how to use the lower abdomen, and how to maneuver opponent's balance. My first pupils were Japanese friends, and lower abdomen to them was shita hara.
Shita (pronounced sh'ta) and hara are two Japanese words meaning under or lower abdomen. The words shita hara mean to a Japanese what the words lower abdomen mean to us -- and nothing more.
This word hara is the same word we meet in hara kiri -- abdomen cutting -- the Japanese method of suicide.
Gradually as I evolved the idea of balance-control and abdominal power, I adopted the word shita-hara as a technical term for a new principle for which there was no name. When teaching the Doughboys, they called it "Stahara" and that is how it was finally written. It is an American word for an American idea.
STA-HA-RA Sta -- pronounced as in star.
ha -- pronounced as in harp.
ra -- a has the same sound as in the first two syllables.
Japanese teachers of jujitsu do not mention the Stahara when explaining a throw or trick to their disciples. They teach the use of the arms and legs, of the hips and shoulders, but do not show the principle of balance, which is the basis of the whole system.
It is therefore an average of ten years before a student of jujitsu in Japan masters these throws. It takes that length of time to acquire the scientific way, in common parlance, to "get the knack" of doing the trick.
Jujitsu is not done with strength of arm or leg and this inability to grasp the underlying principle is why it takes so long to master it.
You must realize the importance of the Stahara. It is here the center of gravity lies. It is here the seat of the emotions lies. It is the most important part of the human body, and the most neglected.
One of Captain Smith's classes.
Fort Myer, Virginia, August, 1918.

LESSON 2
This lesson teaches you how to make an opponent quit without injuring him.
After mastering the principle of this lesson, two inexperienced men may proceed to practise all the tricks in this course any number of times, without injury or pain.
The seven lessons taught in Book 1 are not meant to teach Fighting or Self-defence tricks. They merely aim to train you:
How to use your body as a whole;
How to keep your balance;
How to practise effective holds with safety.
Book 1 tries to convey those fine points of personal instruction which are usually lacking in a text book.
If you "catch on" to these points you will be able to study the following six books just as effectively as if you had a teacher at your elbow all the time.
The practical application of the Wrist Twist is given in Books 5 and 6.


THE WRIST TWIST


ORDINARY GRIP
For the preliminary practice your opponent stands facing you holding up both hands with the backs toward you.

Seize his right hand placing your thumbs on the back and your fingers on his palm.
The first photo shows the hold made with the strength of the fingers and thumb only which is a weak method.


STRONG GRIP
Hold his hand not with finger and thumb only but with the palm and the third joint of the thumb.

It is a sort of clinging grip, its power comes from the palm of the hand as well as the ends of thumbs and fingers.
Experiment until you get it.


TWISTING RIGHT WRIST
Slowly pull his hand to your left twisting his wrist until you have him in this position.

This will cause him considerable pain. Continue to twist his wrist, however, until the pain causes him to quit.
When he is unable to bear it he will give the signal of defeat by tapping his left hand twice on his chest and you will instantly release him.


TWISTING LEFT WRIST
Take the same grip on his left hand and twist in the same way to your right, slowly, until he gives the signal of defeat.

As you release each hand he returns to position fig. 4 for you to continue the practice.
Repeat until you can seize either hand without hesitation and make him quit.
Allow opponent to practise it the same number of times on you.


MAKING AN OPPONENT QUIT
Jujitsu matches are won by making the other man quit. The holds employed for this purpose are powerful enough to break a man's arm or leg, to choke him into unconsciousness, or even to break his neck.
Strange as it may appear, however, jujitsu matches are absolutely free from injury to the contestants. This is because of the very scientific and skillful method of the opponents.
An ordinary person who had not been shown the proper method of practising would apply the hold roughly with injurious results.
Consequently he would never become expert because he could not get opponents to practise with; once would probably be enough for them.
If on the other hand you simply apply them lightly and without using pressure you cannot be sure that you have mastered the trick.
In this course the "Breaking Point" is always clearly demonstrated. You are shown the exact position into which the opponent must be maneuvered. You are taught to take opponent up to the "Breaking Point" without making him feel any pain. This is the Major Operation.
Then apply pressure until he quits but so slowly that there is no danger of your going too far and injuring him in the slightest. This is the Minor Operation.
You will start on the wrists and elbows and later on will graduate to his neck on which you will be able to apply the most effective holds with perfect safety.
He must practise every grip on you that you may appreciate its effectiveness. It will also teach you temperance in giving pain as you wish your opponent to practise temperance towards you.


THE SIGNAL OF DEFEAT
The Signal of Defeat is given thus:
If both hands are free, clap them together twice.
If only one hand is free, clap some part of you opponent's body lightly twice so that he may feel it, or clap your own body twice, loudly enough for him to hear it.
If both hands are imprisoned, stamp twice on the floor so that he may hear it.
The Japanese sometimes give the signal of defeat by saying "maita" (pronounced like the English words my tar, said quickly), which means, "I quit." You may use the same words, or say, "Enough."
When a chokehold is applied you will not have the power of speech and will find it necessary to give the hand signal.
Thru their ability to make opponents quit without hurting them Japanese are able to indulge indefinitely in their otherwise dangerous practice.
No man gives in while there is a chance of escape and there are ways of wriggling out of apparently fatal holds.
But these grips can be held so that they give no pain and yet the slightest pressure will cause you enough pain to make you relinquish your struggles. In other words, you would know when opponent could break your arm, etc., without any great effort, and without your being able to prevent him.
Having such holds repeatedly applied to the limit train you to an equanimity of temper. You feel no chagrin or disappointment, just as you expect your opponent to feel none when you turn the tables on him.
In fact, in a five minutes bout in jujitsu each will have made the other quit several times and they will always keep smiling.
A class at Fort Myer, Va., August, 1918.
THE LITTLE FINGER "COME-ALONG"
The order given was: "On the command 'Forward MARCH' the captured men will try to escape.

LESSON 3
This lesson gives further instruction in how to take bone-breaking grips on the opponent and control him without any danger of breaking his bones.
· The Little Finger "Come-along."
· Unbalance opponent the moment you grasp him, and keep him off balance until you have secured the grip.
· The fascinating game of -- "Tickle my nose, if you can."
· Growth of self-confidence.
· The Major Operation.
· The Minor Operation.
· The more haste the less speed.
· The escape from the Little Finger "Come-along."
LITTLE FINGER "COME-ALONG"
Standing on opponent's left side, seize him with your right hand just above his left elbow with your thumb round the other side of his arm.

Step quickly behind him, unbalancing him towards you, thus preventing him striking you with his other hand.
Slip your left hand, palm up, below his left hand, which is hanging palm down.
Grasp his fourth and fifth fingers.



Hold his wrist and his elbow pressed tightly against your Stahara.
Keep your legs well apart and be well balanced.
Bend his wrist at right-angles to his forearm, and his fingers at right angles to his wrist.
Bring him onto his toes, off balance, by upward pressure on his fingers and march him around the room.
Practise this hold with both hands.


UNBALANCE OPPONENT THE MOMENT YOU GRASP HIM AND KEEP HIM OFF BALANCE UNTIL YOU HAVE SECURED THE GRIP
Grasp opponent with right hand only as in fig. 8. Tell him to tickle your nose, and as he attempts to swing his right hand to your face, pull his left elbow towards you, thus unbalancing him to his left back corner.
Notice in fig. 8 how, by unbalancing the opponent in this manner the threatening movement of his right hand has been checked. Try this experiment a number of times. Neither of you should move your feet at first.


THE FASCINATING GAME OF -- "TICKLE MY NOSE, IF YOU CAN"
You should play the game of "Tickle my nose" with each trick to make sure that you have mastered it. If opponent cannot tickle your nose, he would be unable to strike you.
You can thus demonstrate to your own satisfaction that you have mastered each trick.
The moment he withdraws his hand, relax the pressure. When he again attempts to raise it, apply fresh pressure. Do this with the minimum movement and the minimum pain and you will be able to make him quit whenever you wish without hurting him.


GROWTH OF SELF-CONFIDENCE
After holding a man helpless with the Little Finger grip you will experience a sudden rise in your morale. This is the psychological result of the discovery of physical powers you did not know you possessed.
This is merely a foretaste of greater powers yet to come, and a still greater growth of confidence in yourself, which is a valuable factor in fighting the battle of life.


THE MAJOR OPERATION
Take the position of fig. 9, relax the pressure of your grip until he feels no pain.
This can be done with a hardly perceptible movement. Anyone watching your hand and your opponent's hand would see no change of position.
After a little practice you will be able to grasp opponent and instantly secure the grip up to the point where you have "got" him but without his feeling any pain, as yet.


THE MINOR OPERATION
Tell opponent to raise his right hand slowly and attempt to tickle your nose.
As he raises it, slowly apply the pressure and you will check his attempted move.
Do not apply more pressure than is necessary to check him.


MASTERING THE COURSE WITHOUT AN INSTRUCTOR
Two absolutely inexperienced men or women can easily master the entire course without a teacher if they will observe the following rule:
Alternately take the role of victim and unresistingly allow each trick to be practised on you, and in turn practise it on your partner until you have mastered both the Major and Minor Operations.
This will safeguard you against injuries and will reduce the time necessary for each trick.
In more advanced practice you may execute the Major operation with full speed and strength but the Minor operation is always performed gently and with the minimum of movement.
It may be suggested that you go thru the entire course once before you try any practise for speed.


THE MORE HASTE THE LESS SPEED
In jujitsu demonstrations I have frequently allowed a man to attack my throat with his thumbs on my windpipe and to do his utmost to choke me and have instantly secured a lock on his arm and held him powerless, but without hurting him. Frequently some enthusiastic member of the audience will try a similar grip on the arm of a friend but will nearly break his arm, with the result that his friend will absolutely refuse to practise any more.
Now, if these young men had waited until they were shown what part of the trick to take swiftly and what part to do slowly, they would have been able to practise with a great deal of profit and pleasure. They would have been able to continue that practice until they were really efficient without any danger to their limbs.
So you must analyze every trick into its two operations -- Major and Minor, and while you take the first one quickly, take the second one slowly.
Altho you divide them mentally there will be no pause between them; they will both appear to be one swift movement.
You must try each trick very gently to find out where the Major operation ends and the Minor operation begins.


THE ESCAPE FROM LITTLE FINGER "COME-ALONG"
If assailant omits to imprison your forearm tightly between his hands and his Stahara and merely holds you with the strength of his hands --

Swing right shoulder and elbow upwards, making the effort from the Stahara, dropping our left shoulder and if necessary striking him in pit of stomach with left fist.
This method of escape evades the pain of the grip.



If he holds you tightly against his Stahara and keeps the pressure on your fingers there is no escape.
In actual combat it might be necessary to break an enemy's finger, but this ability to "treat 'em rough" is best acquired by careful practice in which you avoid injuring one another.


LESSON 4
This lesson gives you an example of maneuvering opponent's hand to such a position that it becomes relatively weak.
You are then taught the principle it embodies. You will apply this principle to every hold you practise.


KNOWLEDGE CONQUERS STRENGTH
The underlying principle in this lesson is:
In each trick get your opponent so that he can resist you with only 20 percent of his strength
And conversely
Use your body so that you are exerting 100 percent of your strength at the point where he is opposing only 20 percent of his.
A little practice of this experiment will teach you to act automatically on this principle in all tricks. In order not to hurt one another's wrists do this practice slowly but firmly.
The value of this exercise lies not in the intrinsic merit of the wrist-twist as a fighting trick but in enabling you to apply this principle in your future practice, automatically, without having to try to remember it.


NULLIFYING OPPONENT'S STRENGTH
Take the Wrist-twist grip. Let your opponent relax his arm. Pull your elbows close to your sides, thus straightening his arm.

Twist his wrist slowly, not by hand pressure alone, but by turning your body also.
He is powerless to prevent you as he can only oppose the strength of his wrist against the strength of your whole body.


YOUR OWN STRENGTH NULLIFIED
Relax your arms. Let your opponent slowly pull his elbow close to his side, clenching his fist, with strength and balance in his Stahara.
(Do not move your feet in this experiment.)

You will now find it impossible to twist his wrist.
This is because you are exerting the strength of your wrist only against the strength of his whole body.


A class of West Pointers (1920) at The Infantry School
Camp Benning, Columbus, Ga., February 1919
The DEATHLOCK -- See Book Seven.


LESSON 5
This lesson shows clearly by means of two photographs the secret of Stahara Control, and teaches you how to apply it.

Fig 14: CENTER OF GRAVITY TOO HIGH -- INCORRECT
NO STRENGTH IN THE STAHARA -- THE ABDOMINAL REGION
Body weak -- easily unbalanced.
Connection between arms and legs absent.
Body cannot move quickly.



Fig 15: CENTER OF GRAVITY LOW -- CORRECT
THE STAHARA -- ABDOMINAL REGION -- FULL OF STRENGTH
Body strong -- well balanced.
Proper connection between arms and legs.
Body able to move quickly.


STAHARA CONTROL
Standing in position of fig. 15 force your stomach, abdomen and diaphragm down as if you were trying to force your abdomen outward against your belt, to make your belt feel tight, as it were.
Check this outward movement by the stomach muscles. Hold your breath hard for a few seconds.
Do not strain yourself in any way. Just keep practising it gently thruout the day whenever you happen to think of it.
Practise it for a few minutes before a mirror keeping your face impassive and preventing any trace of effort showing. You will soon be able to do this without holding your breath.
Keep your head up and shoulders back but have all your muscles relaxed.


STAHARA CONTROL HELPS QUICK MOVEMENT
Dance around the room imitating the movements of a boxer -- this is called "shadow boxing." First raise your ribs as high as you can, as in fig. 14.
Next dance around with Stahara control, as in fig. 15. Note how much more under control your movements are, the connection between your arms and legs is much better; you can put more punch into your arm movements.
Stahara control teaches you to keep limber all over, even your Stahara is not tensed, and it enables you to concentrate all your effort in the proper muscles at the proper time.


AN EASY EXPERIMENT

TRY THIS
Stand at attention, head up, shoulders back. Throw your chest out, raising the ribs thus showing what physical culturists call "The Grecian Arch," as shown in fig. 14.
In this position let a friend seize your coat at the shoulders with finger and thumb of each hand, and slowly pull until you lose your balance and fall forward.
It takes but a small effort on his part as your center of balance is too high and your waistline is weak.
Again stand at attention, but do not raise your Grecian Arch. Tense your abdominal muscles, as shown in fig. 15 but without drawing the stomach in. Press the stomach out and against your belt.
Have your friend pull you forward as before. Stand still, do not move the feet. Note how much better you keep your balance.
He will note how much heavier you feel, and, using the same amount of strength as before he will be unable to pull you forward.
Try these two experiments on your friend. In number 1, use the minimum effort to unbalance him. In number 2, use the same amount of strength, and note how much heavier and stronger he is.
A man who has trained himself to stand and pose with the Grecian Arch showing will be at a disadvantage when he first begins to wrestle or box for when making an effort he will instinctively raise his chest walls.
This raises his center of balance too high and weakens his Stahara -- the connecting link between his arms and legs.
In the first experiment with no control of the Stahara the body is like a ship, made of good material, but in which the rivets are loose.
In the second, the ship is tight and trim, every rivet in its place and holding. Your body is like one solid beam, a trustworthy support for a weighty structure, rather than a pillar made of several timbers loosely bolted together and consequently weak.
Practise this experiment until your face shows no trace of effort and until you can do it easily, tensing only when he pulls and relaxing when he relaxes.
The awkwardness of many men can be traced to their unconsciously raising their Grecian Arch whenever they do anything requiring and effort.


LESSON 6


THE WAIST HOLD
This lesson teaches you to keep your balance when struggling in a clinch.
It is a simple method of accustoming a beginner to personal contact with his opponent.


WAIST HOLD

STARTING POSITION
The two students stand facing each other at a distance of four to six feet. The heels are eighteen inches apart on the same line. The knees are slightly bent; the body erect and well balanced, limber and not tensed.
Note:
The Waist Hold is a good exercise for the muscles. It also familiarizes the beginner with the sensation of being seized and teaches him to keep cool, thus correcting the tendency of the timid individual to stiffen up and tense his muscles instead of keeping them limber and ready for instant action.



Step up to opponent. Slip your hands beneath his arms and clasp them behind his back.
Place your chin on his chest midway between collarbone and nipple.
(Opponent stands still and does not move.)



Bend opponent back by pressing your chin firmly into his chest and pulling his waist towards you.
Do not throw him. The trick is achieved when you unbalance him.
Then release him, return to starting position, and allow him to try it on you.
Do it each three times alternately.


HOW TO DEVELOP SUBCONSCIOUS STAHARA CONTROL
A person's natural inclination when gripping anybody is to put all the strength into the limb which performs the immediate action, that is, the hand or the arm.
In seizing a man around the waist, for instance, the tendency is to lean on him utilizing arm strength only and forgetting to keep your balance.
This lesson educates you out of this habit and gives you automatic Stahara control.
This will develop in your brain a "plexus" that will automatically keep your balance in all sorts of positions and grips.
It will also give you such a grasp of the principle that you will unconsciously apply it in every trick you try.
Practise the Waisthold until you automatically keep your balance every time and never hold on by arm strength alone.
While doing this exercise you are thinking of two things:
First: To keep your balance.
Second: To check any tendency to raise the chest wall.
You would be surprised at the number of people who raise their chest walls (as in fig. 14) when they exert strength.
At first you will have to think hard of your balance and your Stahara, but after a few practices you will keep your balance without having to think so hard, you will also find that you have more control of the Stahara.
That means that your subconscious mind is learning to take care of these operations leaving the active mind free to attend to the details of the new tricks.


LESSON 7
This lesson teaches some simple calisthenic movements to increase your balance and Stahara control.
Done five minutes night and morning they will give you a healthy appetite and improve your figure.


FIRST STAHARA CALISTHENIC
Advance your left foot 24 or 36 inches in proportion to our height, left toe pointing straight to the front, right toe pointing straight to the right, or at right angles to your left foot.
Clasp your left wrist behind your back with your right hand.

"ONE"
Straighten the right leg. Bend the left leg, bringing the knee over the toe and as far forward as possible.
Bring the chest directly over the left toe.
The right leg, back, and head form one straight line.
Keep the feet flat on the ground -- do not raise the heels or toes.



"TWO"
Straighten the left leg, tensing muscles of left thigh. Bend the right knee as much as possible.
Carry body back until chin is directly over right heel.
The left leg, body, and head form one straight line.
Do not bend the abdomen outward, keep it flat.
Perform twelve times with left foot advanced. Repeat with right foot advanced.
Note: This is one of the finest exercises known for reducing the hips.


HOW TO CULTIVATE BALANCE
For the first few days make this a leg movement, tensing the muscles of the rear leg as you go forward, and of the front leg as you go back.
For the next few days concentrate on your stomach muscles. Tense them when you are farthest forward, and also when you are farthest back. Try to feel that your body is one solid piece in each position.
Next, make it a balance movement, without conscious muscular contraction.
Stay in the forward position while you count five, lean forward as far as possible. Realize that your Center of Balance is in your Stahara. Make your position stable and balanced but without tensing any muscles.
Move swiftly back to position "TWO" and retain that position while you count five. Again remember where your Center of Balance is. Your stomach muscles will naturally tense in this position, but relax them as far as possible, keeping your body limber.
At first your heels will rise off the ground and you will be in danger of losing your balance forward. As you go back your toes will come off the ground and your position will be so weak at first that a person could topple you back with one finger.
As you lunge forward imagine that you are putting all your weight into a blow with your fist. As you go back, think that you are ducking back to avoid a blow aimed at your face. Practise of this exercise will give you a wonderful control of balance.


SECOND STAHARA CALISTHENIC -- CHEST ON KNEE
"ONE":
Stand exactly as described in first Stahara calisthenic, but in addition, lean forward, and press chest against knee.
Tense muscles of rear leg, keeping heels on ground.

"ONE"
"TWO":
Straighten front leg and bend rear leg, swing body back. (Same as "TWO" of first calisthenic.)
When in position "ONE" keep your balance by concentrating on the Stahara, make it hard. Similarly when you go back to "TWO" make the Stahara hard, pound it with your fist to test its hardness.
Note: Pound it gently at first.
Perform four times with left leg forward and then four times with right leg forward.
In both positions "ONE" and "TWO" you will feel a tendency to overbalance yourself. This is because you are thinking, by habit, unconsciously, of the usual muscles with which you fight or work, i.e., your leg and arm muscles; and the connecting link between them, the Stahara, is absolutely uneducated.
Practise this movement a few times daily for two or three weeks and you will then be able to keep your balance without difficulty.
At first you must make the Stahara hard by consciously tensing it, but later on it will not be a muscular effort, you will keep your balance automatically.
As a reducing exercise, this movement has no equal, but if stout and full blooded perform it slowly and deliberately at first.


WHAT BENNY LEONARD SAYS ABOUT STAHARA TRAINING
Benny Leonard, Light Weight Champion of the World, was Boxing Instructor at Camp Upton [near Long Island, New York] with the 77th Division when I was there, and this is what he says about Stahara training:
In reference to Stahara training which you introduced in the army. I do not think there is any other method of training so beneficial for the body.
I shall never forget it as long as I live, as it has helped me considerably.
This training teaches men to put their weight into their blows, and to use their body when punching, instead of the arms alone.
Since the armistice has been signed [in November 1918] I have come in contact with a good many of the pupils whom I taught the art of boxing, and they claim that the bayonet man was helpless in a hand-to-hand encounter if his Stahara was not in the best of condition.


PERPETUAL ABDOMINAL CONTROL
Right where you are sitting reading, whether in your own house or in a street car: --
Take a deep breath naturally and without making a noise, hold your breath, then draw in the abdomen as far as possible. Hold this position for a few seconds.
Relax, let your abdomen regain its normal position, exhale, hold your breath, again draw in your abdomen as far as possible. Hold this position for a few seconds.
Relax, inhale naturally, and continue the exercise.
Continue this exercise until you can do it at any time, in any place, whether standing or sitting, whether walking or riding, whether your lungs are full or empty.


CONSTANTLY PRACTISE ABDOMINAL CONTROL
Practise in front of a mirror to make sure you are getting the right movement and that you are sucking in the abdomen to its fullest extent.
Pay particular attention to your expression. Make your face absolutely impassive and expressionless. Do not allow any trace of exertion to appear on the face.
Place the hands beneath the belt on the abdomen in order to feel that you have the right movement.
If you cannot get the movement by this means lie flat on your back, place a heavy book on the abdomen and endeavor to move it up and down.
Do not overdo the matter of holding your breath but simply try to get the knack of moving your abdomen in and out.
The very fat, and those who wish to reduce should practise this, stripped, in front of a mirror, rubbing and kneading with the third joint of the thumbs the fatty deposit on their abdomen.
Vary this by rubbing with a turkish towel. This will redden and irritate the skin at first so be careful in the beginning not to overdo it.
If you have been at your desk all morning do this exercise for a few minutes before lunch and it will help your appetite.
No matter how rushed or hurried you are walk several blocks on your way to lunch practising this exercise as you walk.
Use it when you are reading the papers, when you are riding in the street car, when you are listening to conversation.
Even in after years when you have mastered Stahara control still use this preliminary exercise a few times every day.
It is a splendid exercise for the bowels and if used regularly will correct a sluggish liver.


MAKE YOURSELF HUNGRY
You should at once adopt this training diet, not for a contest, but for life: -- It consists of
Common sense in choosing wholesome food;
Avoiding things that disagree with you;
Temperance in the amount you eat.
The Golden Rule of eating is:
MAKE YOURSELF HUNGRY FOR EACH MEAL.
Practise the Abdominal Control exercise with the same regularity that you wash your teeth.
It creates a better circulation in your digestive track and makes it function more efficiently. It strengthens the muscular tissues of the abdominal organs, and gives them greater power. It massages the intestines and hastens the removal of effete matter.
If you have not recently enjoyed a good appetite this will soon give you one.
This simple rule of making yourself hungry will give you better health, a clearer skin, and a more active brain than the most carefully selected diet would without getting hungry.
If your stomach is soured, drink copiously of water, hot or cold. Practice the Abdominal Control exercise, miss a meal, and your stomach will be washed out, sweet and clean. It will assist if you go for a walk while doing this.
One more caution: Whenever you sit down to a meal for which you have no appetite, eat only half of what you are accustomed to and you will be hungry for the next meal.
The results will be immediate and surprising and will pay you a big dividend in increased "pep" and mental power.


ANOTHER MEANING OF STAHARA
The Great War brought into prominence that ugly but expressive word "Guts." It was particularly popular with the Bayonet Instructors who were always telling their classes to put their "guts" into it.
By this they meant that one should put his whole strength and weight into the thrust or lunge, and put the same strength and weight into the thrust or lunge, and put the same spirit into his effort of "sticking" the dummy that he would into fighting with a real foeman.
In short, they wanted to train, not only the muscular endurance of the soldier, but his morale, or fighting spirit.
Shakespeare said:
He that hath no stomach for the fight
Let him depart.
The bayonet instructors wanted to train our "Stomach for the fight."
The word "guts" then, scientifically analyzed, combines both the idea of putting the strength and weight of your body into any given blow and the idea of putting all your mind and will and soul into any given movement.
The same idea inspired Shakespeare when he wrote the above quotation in classical English, and the bayonet men when they punctuated their instructions with a phrase which many will term vulgar, and which at best is slang.
What Shakespeare and the bayonet instructors dimly visualized this course teaches as a specific principle. The knack of putting your "guts" into it can be learnt, separate and distinct from anything else, and once acquired can be applied to anything.
The Stahara consists of the diaphragm (the large muscle which divides the cavity of the heart and lungs from the cavity of the stomach and intestines) on the top, and the muscular floor of the abdominal region, and all that lies between.
When the body is used properly as by an expert in any branch of sport, the weight of the whole body, the weight of the Stahara, goes into any stroke he may make, as in golf or tennis, thereby distinguishing him from the beginner, who depends largely on the working of his arms and legs.
After a course in Stahara training, with the increased faculty of using the body as a whole, and the automatic realization of the fact that the center of gravity lies in the center of the Stahara, a sportsman will be able to watch an expert play golf, for instance, and will appreciate just how the expert uses his Stahara.
He will then be better able to analyze his own movements and correct them accordingly.
Stahara supplies not only a word that can be used, but also a scientific and complete training for what, up till now, was only a dimly realized, vague idea, not yet developed into a principle.
Stahara simply means "Guts" -- moral and physical.

The Secrets of Jujitsu, A Complete Course in Self Defense, Book II
By Captain Allan Corstorphin Smith, U.S.A.
Winner of the Black Belt, Japan, 1916. Instructor of Hand-to-Hand Fighting, THE INFANTRY SCHOOL, Camp Benning, Columbus, Georgia and at United States Training Camps and Cantonments, 1917 and 1918.
In Seven Books.
BOOK TWO.
STAHARA PUBLISHING COMPANY
Columbus, Georgia, 1920.
***
This electronic version is copyright EJMAS © 2000. All rights reserved.
Contributed by Thomas J. Militello, a 15-year member of Astoria, New York's non-profit Horangi Taekwondo Dojang, which is headed by James Robison.
Readers interested in seeing film images should note the following film held by the National Archives and Record Administration:
NWDNM(m)-111-H-1180.
Title: Physical and Bayonet Training, 1918.
Scope and Content: Recruits at Camp Gordon, Georgia receive detailed instruction in boxing and jiu-jitsu. Wrestling and jiu-jitsu holds are used against a foe with a bayonet. Troops do calisthenics and play rough games calculated to make them physically fit.
35mm film, 15 minutes


FORM A SELF-DEFENSE CLUB
It does not matter what sort of a partner you first practice with. Keep a record of your progress by making a check mark against a trick each day you practice it. The first day a trick may take five or ten minutes, and after that only one or two minutes.
Let your opponent try all the tricks on you, you will learn a great deal from this.
Get at least one friend enthused to the point where he will procure a set of textbooks for his private study and will keep a record of his progress.
After four such practices with one opponent, you should try to practice each trick with as many different opponents as you can get.
Each man has a different style of physique and you have not mastered the course till you can do the tricks effectively on any style of opponent.
Popularize this practice amongst your circle of friends to provide yourself with opponents. Some one of your friends may develop a better style of doing a certain trick than you, and it will be to your advantage to practice it with him.
All this practice must be formal and not competitive. Once you start wrestling in a haphazard way you will hinder the orderly study of the course.
To attack one another with "any old trick" will result in severe falls, and should only be done on a mat after you have learned how to fall. This will be taught in the second course.
It is quite unnecessary to so in this course which is a complete and adequate system of self-defense and can be learnt without such strenuous practice.


LESSON 6
This lesson teaches you --
How to clasp hands when taking hold.
An interesting variation of the waisthold.
The chin shove.
Correct leverage in the chin shove.
Advanced practice in the chin shove.
Name of Partner Date Practice Commenced Waisthold Chin Shove
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Make a check mark against each trick each day you practice it.
In clasping hands behind opponent's back always take the grip shown in fig. 23.
Unless he is a much smaller man, in which case clasp your left wrist with your right hand.
Never use the grip shown in fig. 25.

If your opponent falls on your fingers when they are clasped this way they may be broken.
Again, if he lies beneath you his weight may jam your fingers so that you would have difficulty in freeing your arms while his arms would be free to attack.
These instructions as to correct methods of clasping hands are chiefly for the man who acts in the role of Assailant in this waisthold series, and in the "Seized from Behind Series" in Book 4.


AN INTERESTING VARIATION OF THE WAISTHOLD
There is a peculiarly sensitive spot about two inches long up and down each side of the backbone halfway between the waistline and shoulders.
Press the big third knuckle joint of your first finger into your first finger into your own back till you discover the spot.
Apply pressure here with the knuckle simultaneously with the pressure of your chin on his chest and the pain will cause him to quit.
As soon as he quits, let go and allow him to practice on you.

Some men are not sensitive to pressure here, but many people are so susceptible to pain at this spot that the trick will cause them to quit, and may even knock them out. Therefore when applying it to anyone, go slowly at first.
Experiment on each other a few times that you may acquire a moderation and temperance and so avoid injuring a less robust companion.


NOTES ON THE WAISTHOLD
Before practicing the chin shove given on the following page you and your partner should execute the waisthold as taught in Book 1, three times each.
The waisthold is not much use against a heavier man and is not taught in this course for its fighting value.
It is taught in order to provide an Assailant for the man who wants to learn the chin shove. It is the first link in the chain of dovetailed tricks.
It is taught because by means of it you learn the correct method of practice before proceeding to the more advanced tricks which might be dangerous unless practiced properly.
It takes away the beginner's nervousness before he comes to the more advanced tricks.


CHIN SHOVE

"ONE"
Assailant steps forward with left foot as if trying to secure the waisthold.
Step forward and slip your left hand inside Assailant's right arm and place it halfway around his waist.
Place the palm of your right hand under Assailant's chin, forearm straight up and down and close to his chin.


"TWO"
Pull his waist forward with your left hand. Shove his head backward with your right until he is in position of fig. 29.

Be careful not to let him fall. Keep your balance in the Stahara.
This movement is not done by sheer strength, but by destroying Assailant's balance through the proper coordination of your right and left hands.
Be careful not to jerk his head back. In a real fight you would do so, but if you hurt your partner it will simply curtail your practice.



WRONG WAY TO TRY CHIN SHOVE
If you hold your elbow away out as shown in fig. 30 you are using only your arm and shoulder muscles against the strength of his neck.

This is using your strength to the least advantage, as an ordinary man's neck is stronger than his arm and shoulder.
Take the right position of fig. 28, and put the strength of your Stahara -- the strength of your whole body -- into the trick.
Experiment and learn the correct method of shoving.
In a real fight you will not stop at the position shown in fig. 29, but will throw opponent over backward.
If performed with sufficient quickness he will be knocked out by the concussion of his head on the ground.
Further, there would be no pause between "ONE" and "TWO" which is simply the analytical method of learning this trick.
It is unnecessary to throw the opponent in practice.


CORRECT LEVERAGE IN CHIN SHOVE
Take position of fig. 31. Assailant is holding you around waist. You have your hand on his chin.

Let him stiffen his neck and resist your efforts to push him back, so that you are struggling with him strength against strength. You will be unable to push him back.

Instead of continuing to push back against his strength push up, dropping your body a little so that your Stahara is behind the upward effort.
This will instantly get him off balance and you can easily subdue him.


ADVANCED PRACTICE IN THE CHIN SHOVE
Compare your position with each illustration until you have learnt the applied mechanics of the trick and can get a stronger man off his balance and so discount his strength by scientific shoving.
This method enables you to commence your study of this course with the same safety and accuracy of movement as if you were being carefully grounded in first principles by a painstaking teacher.
In the early stages of practice it is necessary to pause between the counts "ONE" and "TWO". Otherwise you may inadvertently give your Assailant too severe a tap on the chin. When first shoving Assailant's head back, do it very slowly.
For advanced practice, discard the counts and both attack at the word, "GO", Assailant with the waisthold, opponent with the chin shove.
Assailant will attack slowly at first, but as opponent becomes more expert with the chin shove will attack with increasing swiftness.
There must be no finessing with the arms. Assailant, who attacks with waisthold, knows that opponent's arms are coming inside his, but must not try to parry them. He must maintain the original direction of attack. His one endeavor must be to get opponent firmly around the waist before opponent can get the chin shove.
In a real fight it would not be necessary to place left hand behind Assailant's back, a blow with the heel of the hand on his jaw is the best method.
This practice will enable you to develop the power to hit a hard blow when necessary, and will also train your eye and presence of mind so that in an emergency you would act vigorously.


THE BEST DEFENSE IS ATTACK
The best defense is attack. In other words, keep your opponent so busy defending himself that he has no time to attack you.
"Beware of entrance to a quarrel, but being in
"Bear it that the opposer may beware of thee."
In actual combat, do not wait until he attacks you, but get the jump on him.
But the best way to learn a trick is to practice it on a man who is attacking you.
If you practice it on an unresisting opponent, his body is relaxed and you do not meet with the proper resistance.
On the other hand, if you tell him to resist you every time, he will soon be able to prevent you getting the grip and that makes it impossible for you to practice.
Get your opponent to attack you as instructed. This not only provides you with the proper resistance, but reproduces as nearly as possible the conditions under which you would actually have to use the tricks.
Furthermore, it trains your reflex action and makes you instinctively do the right trick.
This feature of the course makes it unique for by this method you will be able to do the tricks better in two or three weeks than you would under years of the old system.


LESSON 7
This lesson teaches you --
The Nose Push.
The psychology of the Nose Push.
When to use the knee kick.
The escape from the chin shove.
Name of Partner Date Practice Commenced Nose Push Escape from Chin Shove
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Place a check mark against each trick each day you practice it.


NOSE PUSH
Never allow yourself to be seized around the waist, but as you may be taken by surprise and find yourself in this grip the following trick should be practiced, so that you will have a definite and effective defense.


"ONE"
Stand still and allow Assailant to seize you with the waisthold, his chin on your chest and bend your back until you are almost falling, holding you so close that you cannot use the knee kick.


"TWO"
Clench fist with thumb jutting out. Insert end of thumb (not the nail) beneath Assailant's nose just where the nose joins the face, so that the thumb presses partly against his upper lip and partly against the nose bone where it joins the face.

There is a very sensitive spot here, which you can locate by experimenting on your own nose. [EN1 ]
If he turns his nose to your right use your left thumb. If he turns to the left, use your left thumb. If he buries his nose in your chest, bring up both thumbs and dig for it.


"THREE"
Push Assailant's head back until he releases his waisthold.

Do not touch his face with your hand. The only point of contact is your thumb. Otherwise you decrease the pressure your thumb exerts on the vital spot.
Do this very slowly at first in order not to hurt partner's nose.
His nose is not pushed but the sensitive spot where nose meets face should be pressed upwards in the direction of his ears.
Pushing at this angle makes it easy to get his head back.


"FOUR"
Bring your knee up into his stomach making the effort from the Stahara.

In practice stop three inches from the mark at which you aim.


THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE NOSE PUSH
When a man has seized a woman with criminal intent and endeavors to carry her off, an escape is easy if the thumb be pressed not beneath his nose, but into his eyes. [EN2 ]
Such a course would be justifiable only where life is in danger. If you are unarmed you have a right to take such action as is necessary to save yourself.
Making a mental note of this, however, is not giving yourself adequate training in self-defense. You might forget to do it. A woman would be apt to lose her head and scream aimlessly.
Sticking your fingers in a man's eye is too dangerous a trick to try on one another but the Nose Push may be practiced with safety. You will thus be made familiar with such an attack, and will think coolly and act instinctively.
A system that merely tells you to stick your finger in a man's eye does not give you a proper education in self-defense.
Your reflex action must be trained so that you will act instinctively in the moment of danger.


WHEN TO USE THE KNEE KICK
If you are attacked by a thug with a knife or pistol or a piece of lead piping or a sandbag, or if your life is in danger and you are unarmed, you are justified in defending yourself by attacking your Assailant's most vital spots -- his crotch or his eyes.
Under no other circumstances would you be justified in resorting to these foul, unspeakable methods. It is unthinkable that a fair man in a fair fight or even an unfair fight, would ever stain his honor by such a dishonorable action.
The same thing applies to women, only in the last extremity would it be defensible for her to use such tactics.
However, there are unfortunately many instances where the most dastardly attacks are perpetrated and the victims are defenseless because they do not know how to use the weapons with which nature has provided them.
In such an instance you would be accessory to your own death if you hesitated to disable or kill him, by the above methods.
You might have such a margin of superiority in strength and skill that you could take him prisoner by a jujitsu grip or knock him out by one of the legitimate blows to his jaw, neck, or solar plexus, and you must use the more humane method where possible.
But in the last analysis, the eyes and crotch are the vital spots and an attack on them is the first thing to do when it is a question of life or death.
It is often asked -- "Instead of that trick you are teaching would it not be simpler to raise the knee and kick him?" The answer is unhesitatingly, "YES." If there is to be any kicking, kick first. But in the general run of things you would not be justified in kicking and must be trained in more honorable methods, reserving the kick for an emergency.
These other tricks must be practiced faithfully because they give you presence of mind and an ability to use your body correctly.


ESCAPE FROM CHIN SHOVE
Assailant attacks you with chin shove, his right hand on your chin, his left hand round your waist.
If you stand with feet on the same line you will be immediately unbalanced and unable to resist.


"ONE"
As he takes hold, step back with either foot and take a balanced position.
Bring your left elbow close to your side and palm of left hand onto Assailant's forearm.



"TWO"
Assailant pushes your had back and pulls your waist in.
Throw your head back quicker than it is pushed, knocking up his right arm with your left arm.
Keep your eyes on Assailant.


"THREE"
Instantly regain your balance and shove Assailant's chin back with your right hand.


"FOUR"
Make Assailant stagger slowly backwards. Bring up your knee with full force, stopping three inches from the target.
This practice will make you dexterous in using both hands and feet in a fight and trains you to make your every movement for the purpose of unbalancing opponent.
Keep your balance and make the effort from the Stahara.


ESCAPE FROM CHIN SHOVE
Understand in a real fight you would not shove but would hit your opponent so hard with the heel of your hand below his chin that you would knock him out.
Practice of this trick will give you the power to deliver such a blow and also the presence of mind to use it.
Also without hitting it is possible to shove so hard that opponent is knocked out by the fall.
In practice go no further than unbalancing opponent with a slow shove.
The practice of this trick has greater advantages than merely teaching you a defense against this attack. It teaches you how to use your body quickly in a way that will be valuable in all attacks.
You do not pull his hand away from your chin but evade it by giving way. The effort is made with a swaying motion of the Stahara which keeps your balance.
Take the position of each of the five photos illustrating this trick, and compare your position with them.
Practice it slowly at first. Afterwards you will do it so quickly that an onlooker could not explain what you had done.
In a real fight you would knock Assailant's hand away, and counter, before he got you in the grip illustrated by fig. 38.


BALANCE AND MOMENTUM
Jujitsu tricks are done with great rapidity on an opponent who is usually moving just as quickly. You utilize the momentum of the opponent to unbalance and defeat him instead of relying on your own strength and weight.
If you try to master the two complicated problems of your opponent's BALANCE and MOMENTUM and at the same time make your legs and arms perform a complicated, unfamiliar feat, you are up against an intricate task in which progress is slow. This is why it takes so many years in Japan to learn jujitsu.
The system by which this book teaches is radically different. It eliminates the factor of MOMENTUM by causing the teacher to stand still until the student commences to use his body properly and until he understands how to unbalance his opponent.
When this stage is reached, the student's subconscious attends to the proper working of the arms and legs and to unbalancing opponent, leaving the active mind free to watch opponent's momentum.
The teacher now adds a little movement to the lesson and finally attacks the student swiftly.
As each student alternately takes the role of Instructor (or Assailant), he will stand stationary and allow his opponent (or pupil) to master the movements of arms and legs and to discover how to unbalance his Assailant.
He may then combine movement with his instructions and his pupil will readily learn to deal with the factor of momentum.


THE WAISTHOLD SERIES
When engaged in training thousands of men who knew nothing of wrestling and boxing and who would shortly be engaged in savage trench warfare, the most important thing was to teach them to deal their opponent a kick or blow in a vital spot.
Merely telling them of these blows was not sufficient. The untrained man would think of these tricks after the battle and would sadly exclaim: "Oh, if I had only done so-and-so."
They were first taught to kick with the whole weight of the body. Merely kicking with the muscles of the leg and thigh does not deliver a blow one-third as powerful as if you "put your Stahara" into it.
The waisthold series, consisting of:
waisthold, chin shove, nose push, and escape from chin shove,
gave them more actual practice in five minutes than half-an-hour of desultory wrestling would.
A class of a thousand men could be trained in these methods with the same precision, snap, and disciplinary effect as army disciplinary calisthenics, or setting-up exercises.
A scientific analysis of each trick enabled the movements to be directed from a platform, step by step, and the soldier learned the movements as quickly and correctly as if he were getting a personal lesson from the instructor.
The same scientific analysis has been followed in these pages. The photos take the place of the platform demonstration, and the printed words take the place of commands.
Take the position of each illustration and slowly practice the movement described and you will learn how to apply your strength.


LESSON 8
This lesson teaches you --
Methods of practice for husband and wife.
The psychology of training.
Three different methods of Throat Attack.
First defense to Throat Attack.
Second defense to Throat Attack.
Third defense to Throat Attack.
Edge of hand blow.
Name of Partner Date Practice Commenced 1st Defense 2nd Defense 3 rd Defense
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Place a check mark against each trick each day you practice it.


A USELESS METHOD OF DEFENSE
It is useless when thus attacked to seize Assailant's wrists and try to pull them off.

Yet that is what most people would do under the paralyzing effects of fear.
It is almost as useless to try and seize a finger and pry his grip open, or even break the finger. If he is strong he would have you nearly choked before you could accomplish this.
Even if you are stronger than Assailant is, strength is not nearly so speedy a way of conquering him as the methods given here, particularly the Third Method.


METHODS OF PRACTICE FOR HUSBAND AND WIFE
If a husband wishes to teach his wife the defense tricks he will assume the role of Assailant, as directed, and attack her with the attempted strangle, the waisthold, etc.
In attacking her throat, he will place his hands on her shoulders and his thumbs on her windpipe, gently, without pressure, and will remain in that position while she slowly executes the defense, practicing this again and again until she acquires speed, and until she can act without hesitation.
He may then hold her neck with gradually increasing pressure in his fingers, carefully avoiding pressure with his thumbs.
Soon she will learn to anticipate the attack and will act so quickly that the defense is made before his fingers can reach her throat.


THE PSYCHOLOGY OF TRAINING
In this way her reflex action is being trained and an attempted move on the part of a ruffian on the street on a dark night would stimulate her reflex action to perform the necessary defense without having to hesitate and think of what to do.
It will train her to act in the face of danger and free her from the paralyzing effects of fear.
The partner with whom you practice knows what your defense will be but must not take advantage of this knowledge to escape or parry the defense. He must attack again and again without variation.
Remember that the ruffian who attacks you on the street does not know what your defense will be and probably expects no opposition at all.
Your properly executed defense will incapacitate him before he has time to change his method of attack.


DIFFERENT METHODS OF THROAT ATTACK
An Assailant might press his thumbs directly into your windpipe.
Or he might cross his thumbs over your windpipe. A strong man could strangle you this way with one hand.
Some men would place the ends of their thumbs on the glands of your neck. This is a very painful grip.
The following lesson provides an adequate defense against any of these methods of attack.
In practice the Assailant may use any of these methods of attack but should exert no pressure with his thumbs.
At first he will merely place his hands on his partner's throat until the partner is familiar with the defense. Later on he will shove you gently. You will retreat more quickly than he shoves, unbalancing him as you retreat, and perform the counter.
Increase the speed of the attack gradually, but never become rough enough to injure one another.
In an actual combat the Assailant might not only try to choke you but to knock you over backward as well. The quickest way to master the defense to the roughest kind of attack is to eliminate the factor of momentum, and practice the trick stationary, until you have mastered all the details except momentum.
If you make your partner shove you while attacking, you will quickly catch on.


FIRST DEFENSE TO THROAT ATTACK
Assailant seizes your throat.
Bring your palms together.
(In practice, Assailant must hold tightly with his fingers, but will not press your throat with his thumbs.)
Bring your hands like a wedge smartly up between his arms, thus breaking his hold.
Place your hands behind his head or on his neck.
Pull his head smartly down, simultaneously bringing up your knee onto his nose with sufficient force to knock him out.
In practice, stop the blow three or four inches from his nose.
Make the effort from the Stahara to ensure efficient coordination between arms and legs, and keep your balance.


SECOND DEFENSE TO THROAT ATTACK
Assailant seizes your throat.
Clasp your hands together as in fig. 50.
Swing forearms upward against the side of Assailant's arms, thus breaking his hold.
Then strike him on the side below his ribs with your double clenched fists.


THREE METHODS OF DEFENSE FOR THROAT ATTACK
There are three methods of defense against throat attack taught in this lesson. The third one is by far the best. After this course is completed you will discard the first and second -- they are merely preliminary training.
A person who uses arm strength alone would not find the third method much better than the others, and would not be able to say why it was better, but you, who are working on the Stahara principle, will soon notice that the third method enables you to discount Assailant's strength to a greater extent, and to deal a more deadly return blow.
If you were taught only one method, you would know so little about the principles of the art that anyone who could do another trick efficiently -- perhaps by sheer superiority of physical strength -- would be able to prevail upon you to discard your former method.
The first and second methods have their place in this scheme of training as they give you experience in using your body in different positions, and give you greater resources of tactics to draw on -- for instance, when the chance presents itself, you would be able to use the knee smash on nose.
When this course is completed, however, your reflex action will make you automatically use the third method and scrap the others.


THE WRIST TWIST AND OTHER COMPLICATED DEFENSES
The wrist twists in Book 6 are also excellent defenses but if you are outmatched by Assailant's strength, use the third method given here, it is your best bet.


THE KNEE KICK
Bear in mind during your practice that in certain circumstances you would be justified in using the knee kick, and when matters come to that pass, kick swiftly, and then follow up with the third method, or take him prisoner with the wrist twist.
In other words, while you faithfully practice these other methods, look upon them as a means to an end, as a training in the effective use to an end, as a training in the effective use of the body, but where it is a case of life or death, use the knee kick, before your Assailant has time to get in his dirty work.


THIRD DEFENSE AGAINST THROAT ATTACK
Assailant takes the throat hold.
Swing your right elbow up over Assailant's left arm, knocking his hands away from your throat and throwing him off balance.
Make the swing, not with the arm, but with the whole body (the Stahara).
Swing your elbow back full into Assailant's neck or jaw. They are both equally vital points and a fair blow will lay him out.
In practice stop the blow three or four inches from your partner's neck.
As you swing in fig. 53, step forward and inward with your right foot and step backward and to the right with your left foot. Compare your position carefully with fig. 53.
Do not knock his arm away with your arm, but bring your armpit in contact with his arm. The swing of the body knocks his arm away and also twists your neck out of his grasp.
Practice this until you get the knack of playing the strength of your body against the strength of his arm. Until this knack is acquired, speed should not be attempted.
After mastering this trick -- the third defense, discard the other two -- the first and second defenses.


THE BLOW WITH THE EDGE OF THE HAND
When standing with your right side towards your opponent, strike him with the little finger edge of your right hand on the right side of the neck.
In practice deliver the blow with full force stopping short three or four inches from your training partner's neck.
When standing with your left side towards your opponent, strike him with the little finger side of your left hand on the left side of his neck.
On the preceding pages you have been taught how to defend yourself against an attack on the throat.
If you wish to attack anyone by the throat you will find the blow with the edge of the hand a much more speedy and efficacious method than the attempted choke with the thumbs.
This is always a backhanded blow, and will drop a man like a log.


THE BLOW WITH THE EDGE OF THE HAND
People sometimes ask whether the blow with the edge of the hand on the throat is more effective than a blow with the fist.
It is, one reason being that you cannot reach the throat with the fist so effectively as you can with the edge of the hand.
But that is not the point. The blow with the edge of the hand is given when you are in a position to deliver it and when you are not in a position to strike with the fist.
Conversely, if you are in a position to deliver an effective blow with the fist, as to the jaw, you would use the fist for you are then not in a position to deliver a blow with the edge of the hand.
In the combination trick of wrist escape and neck blow, Book 3, you can twist your wrist free and deliver the cut with the edge of the hand much more quickly than you could hit with the fist.
Furthermore the edge of the hand blow is not expected and consequently not guarded against, whereas the blow with the fist is more likely to be expected and so guarded against.
It is unnecessary to harden the edge of your hand by constant practice to acquire a hard hitting edge. When you deliver the blow, the hand is held straight and rigid and the point impact is the third joint of the little finger.
A woman of ordinary strength can learn to deliver a blow that will knock out the strongest man whereas a blow from her fist on his chin would only annoy him and cut her knuckles.
You may experiment once or twice on friend husband. Tell him to tense his neck, just give him a little tap, and see how he likes it.


EDITOR'S NOTES
EN1. In more precise terms, this point is located immediately below the septum, which is the fleshy piece separating the nostrils. The targets include a bone joint known as the intermaxillary suture and a major facial nerve known as the nasopalatine nerve. The acupressure point is Governing Vessel 26.
EN2. Thumbing is very common in professional boxing, and is a leading cause of retinal injuries. During self-defense training, in his book On Killing: The Psychological Cost of Learning to Kill in War and Society (Boston: Little, Brown, 1995), Lt. Col. Dave Grossman suggests taping an orange over the Assailant's eye and then having the defender practice pushing hard enough to make the orange squirt.
The Secrets of Jujitsu, A Complete Course in Self Defense, Book III
By Captain Allan Corstorphin Smith, U.S.A.
Winner of the Black Belt, Japan, 1916. Instructor of Hand-to-Hand Fighting, THE INFANTRY SCHOOL, Camp Benning, Columbus, Georgia and at United States Training Camps and Cantonments, 1917 and 1918.
In Seven Books.
BOOK THREE.
STAHARA PUBLISHING COMPANY
Columbus, Georgia, 1920.
***
This electronic version is copyright EJMAS © 2000. All rights reserved.
Contributed by Thomas J. Militello, a 15-year member of Astoria, New York's non-profit Horangi Taekwondo Dojang, which is headed by James Robison.
Readers interested in seeing film images should note the following film held by the National Archives and Record Administration:
NWDNM(m)-111-H-1180.
Title: Physical and Bayonet Training, 1918.
Scope and Content: Recruits at Camp Gordon, Georgia receive detailed instruction in boxing and jiu-jitsu. Wrestling and jiu-jitsu holds are used against a foe with a bayonet. Troops do calisthenics and play rough games calculated to make them physically fit.
35mm film, 15 minutes
Judging from responses from the US Army historians at Forts Myer and Benning, little biographical information is available concerning Captain Smith. Therefore readers with additional information are requested to contact the editor at jrsvinth@juno.com .


LESSON 9
This lesson teaches you --
1. First preliminary wrist exercise.
2. Second preliminary wrist exercise.
3. First wrist escape.
4. Second wrist escape (Book I).
5. Wrist escape and edge of hand blow.
Name of Partner Date Practice Commenced No. 1 No. 2 No. 3 No. 4 No. 5
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Make a check mark against each trick each day you practice it.


PRELIMINARY WRIST EXERCISE
Assailant seizes your right wrist with his left hand, as in fig. 58, his thumbs above and his fingers below.
Turn your forearm so that the thin edge of your wrist (the thumb edge) faces the opening between his thumb and first finger.
This opening is the weakest point in his grip.
Whip your wrist straight out of this opening.
Practice first with a pause between turning your wrist and whipping it out. Then practice it as one movement.
(In the "FIRST WRIST ESCAPE," if you find yourself trying to force the broad part of your wrist out of his grip, you should return and practice this first exercise until the proper twist of the wrist comes automatically.

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