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SECOND PRELIMINARY EXERCISE
Lever your wrist out of his hand by pushing your elbow round to his elbow using the edge of his hand as a fulcrum.
Swing the right side of your body towards him, pivoting on the ball of the right foot, making the effort from the Stahara.
The weakest man's Stahara is stronger than the strongest man's wrist. This lesson further teaches you to play the strength of your Stahara against his wrist.


FIRST WRIST ESCAPE
Assailant seizes your right wrist in his left hand and your left wrist in his right hand.
Release your right wrist exactly as described in second preliminary exercise.
The power of the Stahara can be used just as much in this trick as in the upward wrist escape in Book 1.
If a strong man holds your wrists too tightly when you first try this, you will forget all about the Stahara and will only use arm strength, therefore practice it at first with your wrists held lightly.
Release left wrist in the same manner, swinging on the balls of the feet, making the effort from the Stahara.
Keep the body erect and straight and the elbow in at the side.
Practice until you get the knack.


WRONG METHOD
Fig. 65 shows how not to do it. By raising your elbow this way you are using arm strength instead of Stahara strength.


WRIST ESCAPE AND EDGE OF HAND BLOW
Assailant seizes your left elbow with his right hand and your right wrist with his left hand.
Let him shove you slowly back.
You will find it difficult to free your elbow.
But you will have no difficulty in whipping your right wrist away as already taught doing it with a turn of the body.
With the same motion that frees your hand carry it to the height of Assailant's shoulder.
Strike a straight chopping blow with the edge of the right hand at Assailant's neck.
In practice put strength into the blow but stop it a few inches from his neck. With this blow it is an easy matter to knock a man out.
Also practice it with Assailant seizing your right elbow and left wrist.
When done with the proper turn of the body, that is, with the strength of the Stahara instead of strength of arm, you will find it an easy matter to slip your wrist out of a much stronger man's grasp.
At first you may be clumsy and in carrying your right hand your right hand up to your left shoulder you may strike it against his right arm.
With a little practice, however, you will execute the trick with neatness and dispatch.
This, and the other wrist tricks, train you to work with neatness and dispatch, and apart from their value as fighting tricks play an important part in educating your body.
These wrist escapes are very hard on the skin so mutually agree to hold one another's wrists lightly until the correct movement of the body is mastered. You can learn quite as effectively if the wrists are held lightly.
Ladies might be advised to wear old gloves to protect their wrists.
Practice until you can escape from a fairly strong grip, without effort, by the weight and swing of the body.
Try to get the weight of your Stahara into the first wrist escape to the same extent that you did in the upward wrist escape, Book I.
At first direct your attention towards training your own body, disregarding your opponent, in which object your opponent will assist by remaining stationary, and so simplifying your task.
After your body has acquired the correct motion begin to watch Assailant's body, he may then try to prevent your escape.
You can make him relax slightly by taking away his attention, by some remark, or by pretending to kick him, or in a fight by actually kicking, say, his shins, then escape when his grip momentarily weakens.
You now know two simple wrist escapes -- the first wrist escape of this lesson, and the upward (second) wrist escape of Book I. If your Assailant frustrates your attempt to get away with one, you can instantly try the other, and escape.
Even if the effort to escape tears your skin you can still lever your wrists out of a powerful grip, but if you go tearing one another's skin at the start it will interfere with your practice.


LESSON 10
This lesson teaches you: --
1. The upward single wrist escape.
2. The downward single wrist escape.
Name of Partner Date Commenced Upward Wrist Escape Downward Wrist Escape
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Make a check mark against each trick each day you practice it.


UPWARD SINGLE WRIST ESCAPE
Assailant seizes your right wrist with both his hands, with his thumbs above and his fingers below.
Step forward and drop down exactly as described in Book 1, so that your elbow is below his hands and bent in an acute angle with the Stahara behind.
With the weight of your body, force your wrist up and out of his grasp.
Besides being a valuable wrist trick, it trains you to put the weight of your body into any given movement. Always work with the strength of your body against the strength of Assailant's arms, getting him off balance while doing so.
After a little practice you will execute this trick so swiftly that you make the downward and upward movement before he has time to prevent you getting your elbow below his wrists.


DOWNWARD SINGLE WRIST ESCAPE
Assailant seizes your right wrist with both his hands.
He twists his hands around until the palms (instead of just his thumbs) are above your wrist.
This makes the previous mode of escape impossible.
With a turn of the body bring your elbow perpendicularly over your fist.
With the weight of your body, force your hand down through his fingers.
Push him off balance with your shoulder and his grip will still further weaken.
You may make a feint as if going to try to force your wrist up as in the previous trick and then suddenly change your tactics, bring your elbow above your fist instead of beneath it.
The two tricks taught in Lesson 10 train your ability further to play the strength of your body against the strength of Assailant's arms: to use your balance against his balance.
Every fresh step you make along these lines makes it easier to apply these principles in all other tricks.
Do not make the mistake of thinking that some of these lessons or tricks are superfluous or uninteresting.
A great many simple tricks are given here for the purpose of teaching you anatomy, not the anatomy of the college textbook which teaches you to name each part of your body, but the practical anatomy of the jujutsu man who knows what part of his opponent's body to seize, and how to use each part of his own body to the greatest advantage.


LESSON 11
This lesson teaches you: --
1. Escape when Assailant seizes you with the under grip.
2. How to reinforce the grip of the hands with the strength of the Stahara.
3. Escape when held with such a grip.
In Lessons 9 and 10, Assailants were above your wrists. In this lesson his thumbs are below your wrists.

Name of Partner Date Commenced No. 1 No. 2 No. 3
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Make a check mark against each trick each day you practice it.


UNDERHAND GRIP -- DOWNWARD ESCAPE, BOTH WRISTS
Assailant seizes your wrists with his thumbs beneath your wrists. (In the previous tricks his thumbs were above your wrists.)
Keep your wrists straight, use the sharp bone of wrist as a knife.
Come straight down on second knuckle joint of Assailant's thumb as if trying to cut it out.
Step back with one foot as you pull and cut. Draw your elbows down and in to your side. Keep your body erect and make the effort from the Stahara.
The first part of the escape comes from the weight of your body pulling your opponent off balance. The finishing part is the cut of the hands.
These are done simultaneously after the trick is mastered, but you will acquire the knack more quickly if you try to distinguish these two factors in your first practice.


WRONG METHOD
The wrong method is to hold the elbows away from the sides and try to escape by the strength of your arms.
(It is easy to dislocate a man's thumbs by vigorously doing this trick so in practice hold each other lightly. In this way you will save your thumbs and so be able to practice more.)


DOWNWARD ESCAPE -- CONTINUED
Seize opponent's wrists. Hold the heel of your hand beneath his wrists so that when he tries to cut down he is cutting against your palms instead of against your thumbs.
Reinforce the strength of hands by holding your forearms perpendicular, elbows resting on your Stahara, like the man on the left in figure 79. In this way you can hold him indefinitely.
Now, if you are seized in this manner, bring your wrists nearer each other until they almost touch.
Your sharp wrist bones are now directly above the second joint of his thumbs (instead of above his palms), and you can cut down as previously described.
Step back in such a manner that the mere strength of his grip on your wrists brings him on his tiptoes, thus unbalancing him. Then cut down and escape.
By unbalancing an opponent, you make him unable to bring more than 20% of his strength to bear.
By keeping your own balance (by paying attention to your Stahara), you can bring 100% of your strength to bear on him.


SUMMARY
Thus described these movements are absurdly simple. It is by studying each trick in its simplest component parts that you can master it without a teacher.
These photos show a great deal more than merely how to escape from a wristhold.
The first series shows how to play the strength of the body against the effort of his wrists.
The second shows how to sidestep, as it were, that strength.
The third shows how to use his own strength to unbalance him.
We are using these simple methods to train your body in the Stahara method.
A man seizes your wrists in one of two ways, his thumb is either above your wrist, or else his thumb is below your wrist.
Practice Lessons 9 and 10 until you no longer hesitate about applying the proper escape when your wrists are seized with Assailant's thumb above.
Then practice Lesson 11 until you act without hesitation, with the correct escape, when Assailant's thumb above.
You will then never be confused, no matter how your wrists are seized. A man might seize one of your wrists with one thumb down and your other wrist with his thumb up. Do not pay any attention to these variations until you have mastered the fundamental methods given here. You will then be able to take care of all the variations.
***
These lessons are built with a view to the cumulative effect on your manner of handling yourself. You will do all the other lessons better after you have studied Book 3, and will do Book 3 better after you have studied the others.
***
There are numerous other ways of escaping from wrist holds, but the object of this course has been not to dazzle the eye by an infinite variety of tricks, but to train you to do some essential tricks with the real knack of a jujitsu man, by using the other fellow's strength against him, and by reinforcing the strength of your limbs by the strength of your Stahara.
For this purpose you are made to do certain movements while Assailant is holding you in various ways, and the sum total of the experience you get will be that you begin to use your body properly.
The Secrets of Jujitsu, A Complete Course in Self Defense, Book IV
By Captain Allan Corstorphin Smith, U.S.A.
Winner of the Black Belt, Japan, 1916. Instructor of Hand-to-Hand Fighting, THE INFANTRY SCHOOL, Camp Benning, Columbus, Georgia and at United States Training Camps and Cantonments, 1917 and 1918.
In Seven Books.
BOOK FOUR
STAHARA PUBLISHING COMPANY
Columbus, Georgia, 1920.
***
This electronic version is copyright EJMAS © 2000. All rights reserved.
Contributed by Thomas J. Militello, a 15-year member of Astoria, New York's non-profit Horangi Taekwondo Dojang, which is headed by James Robison.
Readers interested in seeing film images should note the following film held by the National Archives and Record Administration:
NWDNM(m)-111-H-1180.
Title: Physical and Bayonet Training, 1918.
Scope and Content: Recruits at Camp Gordon, Georgia receive detailed instruction in boxing and jiu-jitsu. Wrestling and jiu-jitsu holds are used against a foe with a bayonet. Troops do calisthenics and play rough games calculated to make them physically fit.
35mm film, 15 minutes
See also Don W. Farrant, "Vintage Jujitsu: World War I Style," .
Judging from responses from the US Army historians at Forts Myer and Benning, little biographical information is available concerning Captain Smith. Therefore readers with additional information are requested to contact the editor at jrsvinth@juno.com .
SEIZED FROM BEHIND -- Fig. 82
If an assailant seizes you around the waist from behind, you may be able to get one of his fingers and so pry his grip open.
If he is a strong man, however, you will have difficulty in getting hold of a finger, and you will simply lose time making the effort.
Further, you will accomplish little, even if you break his hold, for he is still behind you and can strike you, or get a hold on you.
In a real fight if you broke his fingers he would kick, with more effect on you than breaking his fingers had on him.
LESSON 12
This lesson teaches you --
How to make the elbow blow to the solar plexus when seized from behind above the arms.
It also teaches you to keep your balance, and makes you expert in the use of the elbow blow under any circumstances.

Name of Partner Date Commenced Elbow blow to the solar plexus when seized form behind above arms
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Make a check mark against each trick each day you practice it.


SEIZED AROUND WAIST FROM BEHIND ABOVE ARMS
"TAKE HOLD".
When an Assailant seizes you around the waist from behind the most effective defense and the quickest escape is the elbow blow.
"ONE"
If his great strength makes movement impossible, stamp with your heel on his instep or kick him savagely on the shin.
Such a trick will momentarily weaken his hold and in that psychological moment twist down and out.
In practice make the kick with the strength of your whole body, not merely with the leg muscles. "Put your Stahara into it," but stop a few inches from the mark at which you aim.
"TWO"
Slip down through his arms, turning the left hip forward, swinging on the balls of the feet, making the effort from the Stahara.
Simultaneously bring your right elbow directly in front and six or eight inches away from his solar plexus (the pit of his stomach).
"THREE'
Drive your elbow into his solar plexus. In practice put all your force into the blow but stop it three or four inches from the target.
This blow properly delivered will knock him out. If not, repeat it till he drops.
Assailant must hold you lightly. In a real attack he would hold you tightly but the kick you would give would loosen his grip.
In order not to forget this kick in a real fight always practice it, counting audibly:

"TAKE HOLD" Assailant seizes you.
"ONE" Simulate the kick with all your strength.
"TWO" Twist down out of his grip, bringing elbow forward.
"THREE" Drive elbow back.
You will soon acquire a Houdini-like expertness in wriggling out of Assailant's grip, if you practice steadily. This practice is a most valuable exercise as it reaches every muscle in your body and teaches you to coordinate your movements.
It makes you alert and able to take advantage of an opening. The untrained man would be so clumsy, and delay so long after the kick, that he would lose the advantage of Assailant's momentary weakness.
When an Assailant has you in any kind of a grip that prevents your delivering a vital blow, always make a primary attack, which, though not sufficient in itself to defeat him, puts you in a position to deliver the real blow.
This practice trains you in the principle. Merely reading it is not enough, you must practice it.
This is a course in Fighting Jujitsu, not Competitive Jujitsu, so do not get the idea that kicking is allowed in a Jujitsu mach. This practice must all be done formally.
In repeated practices, the man behind knows what you are going to do each time, and it is an easy matter for him to prevent you by tightening his arms every time start making a move, and by dropping his body with you every time you drop.
This is a useless way to practice. The man who takes the role of Assailant must reproduce the conditions of an actual fight in which you would execute your defense before Assailant had time to change his tactics.
Repeated practice will make you quick enough to knock a man out before he grips with his full strength.
Practicing this trick will develop your reflex action until you have a hair-trigger mind.


LESSON 13
This lesson teaches you --
How to make the elbow blow to the neck when seized from behind below the arms.
It gives you further experience in keeping your balance, and in becoming expert with the elbow blow.

Name of Partner Date Commenced Elbow blow to the neck when seized from behind below arms
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Make a check mark against each trick each day you practice it.


DEFENCE WHEN SEIZED BELOW ARMS FROM BEHIND
"ONE"
When an Assailant seizes you around your waist from behind, passing his arms beneath your arms, you cannot strike him in the solar plexus with your elbow, his arms are in the way.
First strike him violently on the nose with the back of your head.
In practice put all your strength into this effort. Make the whole body deliver the blow, not the neck muscles alone.
Stop the blow a few inches from his nose.
"TWO"
His head flies back and his muscles loosen, momentarily at least.
At this moment swing your right elbow round onto his neck or the point of his jaw, making the blow come not from the arm muscles but from the Stahara.
Turn on the balls of the feet.
"THREE"
If he ducks to the left swing to your left and give him your left elbow on the jaw or the neck.
Stop the blow a couple of inches from the target but put all your force into it.
As he staggers back repeat the blow to the abdomen, giving him the quietus.


QUICK THINKING IN MOMEMENTS OF DANGER
You hear a lot about "Quick-thinking" in moments of danger. Most of the quick-thinking is simply the trained man's subconscious acting as it has been trained to do by long practice.
This course will train you in this way. You will begin to realize this when you instinctively give the elbow blow to the solar plexus when seized above the arms and to the neck when seized below the arms.
Merely reading this course will not train you to readiness of action but practice of these two tricks will.


WHEN ATTACKED BY A RUSH FROM BEHIND
The elbow blow has a far wider field of application than the two examples given here.
The best way to deal with a rush from a footpad who attacks you suddenly from some dark alley, at night, is the elbow blow.
The way to acquire an ability to use it in any emergency is to practice these two tricks till it becomes second nature to use your body in the correct manner.
COUNT AUDIBLY AS YOU PRACTICE

"TAKE HOLD" Assailant seizes you.
"ONE" Simulate butting him on the nose. (Your partner must loosen his grip and let his head go back.)
"TWO" Swing your right elbow to his neck.
"THREE" Swing your left elbow to his neck.
Do this three times each, acting as Assailant alternately.


LESSON 14


THE BACK THROW
This lesson teaches you the back throw, an alternate method of escape and defense when seized around waist from behind below arms.
Each method should be practiced to the point of efficiency where you are able to achieve victory by that one trick alone, but in a real fight. The victory often depends upon the number of attempts you make and the variety of methods you employ.
You should maneuver so quickly that your opponent has not time to change his front to meet your fresh attack.

Name of Partner Date Commenced The Back Throw
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Make a check mark against each trick each day you practice it.
"TAKE HOLD"
Assailant seizes you around the waist from behind, below your arms.
"ONE"
Stamp hard on his instep with your heel. This will loosen his grip.
"TWO"
With your right hand seize the front of his right trousers-leg.
Shove with your right hand, twist your left hip forward, swinging on balls of feet, and making effort from Stahara.
"THREE"
With left hand strike Assailant a vigorous blow below the belt.
This should be sufficient to lay him out.
Stop the blow three inches from the mark.
"FOUR"
With your right foot, step behind opponent. Get well down so that your hips are beneath his thighs.
With the front of your right thigh, knock his left hip up at the same time your right arm knocks his body backward.
It will be sufficient to practice lifting opponent into position of Figure 95.
Do not try this trick on a slippery floor with a heavy partner, or you may both fall and be injured.
In practice lift him and hold him for a few seconds. This develops your strength and teaches you to keep your balance.
In a real fight you would throw him with a backward sweep of your right elbow.
The punch in the stomach would make him let go, but supposing it did not, you would fall on him and knock him out.
The ability to do this can be developed without either of you having to fall.

"TAKE HOLD" Assailant seizes you.
"ONE" Simulate the kick to his instep.
"TWO" Seize his pants and twist your left hip forward.
"THREE" Simulate the punch to his stomach.
"FOUR" Step behind and lift him.
Practice this trick three times each alternately.
In Figure 94, be sure that the forward knock your hips give him is at right angles to his line of support, i.e., a line drawn between his heels.
This will unbalance him and make it easy to lift him. If your effort is made parallel to his line of support you cannot unbalance him and you are working against his strongest point.
If you find this principle difficult to understand do not lose time over it just now, it is not very necessary for this course and will be explained fully in the Second Course.


LESSON 15


THE SHOULDER THROW
This lesson teaches you a scientific method of throwing an Assailant over your shoulder when he seizes you around the neck, or around the arms, from behind.
You seize the sleeve of your opponent, unbalance him, place your center of gravity below his, and throw him, instead of the old-fashioned method of reaching for his head and throwing him by main strength.

Name of Partner Date Commenced Slipping down, Fig. 97 Lifting, Figs. 98, 99 The Shoulder Throw
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Make a check mark against each trick each day you practice it.
"TAKE HOLD"
Assailant seizes you around waist, from behind, above arms.
(When taking the role of Assailant, do not hold too tightly at first, and do not complicate matters, or prevent his mastering the trick by dropping down when he drops.)
Throw your right leg outside and behind his right leg, placing your toes on the ground, and keeping your leg close to his.
Slip down through his arms, raising your arms sidewards.
Turn your body slightly to the right. Grasp the upper part of his sleeve with both hands. Pull his armpit over your shoulder, thus unbalancing him.
Always grasp opponent's sleeve instead of his elbow or wrist. This gives you tremendous leverage.
(Every part of your body must be limber except the Stahara, which should be strong and balanced. At first you will be exactly the opposite, your arms will be all tensed and your Stahara will be relaxed.)
Straighten your right leg raising your hip, bend slightly forward, and you will easily lift him.

(Practice lifting him before a mirror, taking the position of Figures 98 and 99 alternately, counting "ONE" -- "TWO", until you get the knack of lifting him by the roll of your body, not by arm or leg strength.)
Slowly rotate your right side close to the ground, rolling him gently off your back. Keep your balance in your Stahara so that you do not fall.
Hold on to his sleeve to prevent his falling heavily. Practice on a mat or grass.
We have some wonderful photos of a man's feet flying through the air straight above the opponent's head. But if these illustrations were used here the trick would look too difficult and you would not see how it was done.
Also if you tried to do it so at first you might hurt one another.
By practicing the positions of the photos shown here you will quickly master the trick and will be able then to throw your opponent's heels as high as you wish.


WRIGGLING OUT OF A MAN'S GRIP (Note re Figure 97)
There is quite an art in wriggling out of a man's grip. If you try to force his arms up with the strength of your arms you will fail unless you are much stronger than he is.
Slip down through his arms, making the effort from the Stahara, just as if the Stahara were a corkscrew, and your shoulders were the cork.
Do not bend forward, do not force his arms up with your arms, but raise your arms as his grip slackens.


KEEP THE STRENGTH IN YOUR STAHARA (Note re Figure 98)
Take the position of the right hand man in Figure 98. Tense your leg and arm muscles only, leaving the Stahara limp. Tell opponent to lift his feet off the ground and attempt to support him in that position. If he is a heavier man than you, you will probably collapse.
Again take the same position, make the Stahara strong (not by tensing the superficial abdominal muscles, but using your body as this course has trained you to do). You will now find that you can easily bear his weight and that you have considerable reserve power.
The two positions illustrated in Figures 97 and 98 are shown and explained separately in order that you may more quickly master these two points.
As a matter of fact there are not two movements here, the Jujitsu man instantly goes from Figure 96 to Figure 98 and you would not see him in position of Figure 97.

"TAKE HOLD"
"ONE" Simulate the kick to Assailant's shins.
"TWO" Slip down and seize his sleeve.
"THREE" Throw him.

LESSON 16


REAR STRANGLE
This is one of the most important lessons in the course.
It teaches a deadly counter to the shoulder throw.
It shows you a safe method of practicing this deadly hold until you are perfect in it.
This lesson teaches more than just a defense. It teaches a hold that can be used in countless situations either of offence or defense.

Name of Partner Date Commenced The Rear Strangle
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Make a check mark against each trick each day you practice it.


COUNTER TO SHOULDER THROW -- THE REAR STRANGLE
As opponent slips down to take shoulder-throw position, bring the sharp wrist-bone of your right arm against the front of his neck.
Counter to Shoulder Throw -- The Rear Strangle
With the strength of both arms, press the wrist-bone on his throat, your chest meanwhile pressing against the back of his neck.
This is a very severe grip and can render a man unconscious instantaneously.
Do it slowly at first so that there is no danger of injury. Let both of you "feel it out" first, the one on whom it is tried making no resistance.


OPPONENT GIVING SIGNAL OF DEFEAT (Showing clearly the action of the wrist-bone)
In practice exert only sufficient pressure to force opponent to give the signal of defeat.
Opponent Giving Signal of Defeat (showing clearly the action of the wrist-bone)
Practice it on each other unresistingly, playing the game of "Tickle my nose." This will make you so expert that you can force one another to quit without injury, and at the same time you will have such a margin of reserve force that in a real fight you could make your opponent unconscious.
The secret of this hold is use the sharp wrist-bone on his throat, and press the neck forward with your chest.
Practice the stranglehold in the following manner:

"TAKE HOLD" Seize your opponent around the waist, from behind, above the arms.
"ONE" Opponent simulates kick to your shins.
"TWO" He drops down and seizes your sleeve, you bring your forearm against his throat.
"THREE" He makes no effort to throw you, and you slowly choke him.
Do not try to choke him by arm strength alone, but keep your strength and balance in your Stahara. Practice till you can make him quit instantaneously yet so gently that you do not hurt his throat.
Do this for several days before you try the Advanced Practice.


ADVANCED PRACTICE
Execute "TAKE HOLD" -- "ONE" -- "TWO" as above, then instead of saying "THREE" say "GO" when your opponent will try to throw you with the shoulder throw before you are able to choke him.
You will try to choke him before he can throw you.
Practice this alternately on each other, and it will increase your efficiency with both the shoulder throw and the strangle hold.
Do not go in for violent practice, but try it again and again for the purpose of improving your style.
The man who is doing the shoulder throw must not utilize the "Escape from strangle hold" taught in Lesson 17. That is practiced separately.


LESSON 17


ESCAPE FROM REAR STRANGLE
This is a very important lesson.
It teaches the escape from the rear strangle.
It enables you to throw over your head anyone who attempts to strangle you from the rear.
It will make you doubly expert at the shoulder throw.
Name of Partner Date Commenced Escape from Rear Strangle
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Make a check mark against each trick each day you practice it.


ESCAPE FROM REAR STRANGLE
As opponent slowly commences to put pressure on your throat, tug his sleeve violently forward with both hands, thus lessening the pressure on your windpipe.
Simultaneously turn your chin into the crook of his elbow. This exposes the large neck muscles to his attack and gives you ample time to complete the escape and throw him; whereas if you allow the pressure to continue on your windpipe one second is enough to make you quit.
Perform this slowly in an experimental spirit, not in a spirit of competition between you and your partner. Do this once or twice in front of a mirror and compare your position with the photos.
Keep your balance in your Stahara so that neither requires to support himself by clinging to his opponent.


EXPERT PRACTICE IN SHOULDER THROW
The moment you escape from the strangle hold you must throw opponent.
If you remain where you are after escaping and simply try to hold his forearm off your neck, your assailant is in the strategic position and can hold you and perhaps finally choke you.
If you attempt to throw him from such a position as Figure 104 you will not succeed unless you are disproportionately stronger than he is, as your center of balance is too high.
Drop your Stahara down, slipping your right foot slightly to the rear, thus bringing your center of gravity below his; then the principle of applied mechanics will make it easy for you to throw him.
In practice be careful however to lower him gently to the ground.


HINTS ON PRACTICE
The following method is the best way to become expert as it centers all your practice at the crucial point where opponent is all set and ready to choke you.
It also makes the practice of this dangerous hold perfectly safe.

"TAKE HOLD" Assailant seizes you around the waist from behind, above the arms.
"ONE" Simulate a kick to his shins.
"TWO" Slip down through his arms and seize his sleeve with both hands.
"THREE" Opponent tries to choke you, execute the escape and throw him
THE KICK is retained in all three foregoing tricks ("The Shoulder Throw" -- "The Strangle" -- "The Escape"), in order to make the counting in each trick the same. This gives you less to think about when practicing.
When revising the lessons, practice each one separately. When practicing the shoulder throw, Lesson 15, opponent must not complicate matters by countering with the strangle hold.
When practicing the stranglehold, Lesson 16, opponent must not counter with the escape.
When practicing the escape from the strangle hold, Lesson 17, opponent must not counter with the deathlock (Book 7). After learning the deathlock, make it the fourth trick in this series, as a counter to a counter-counter.
The third trick in the series teaches you how to escape from any strangle which is done by strength of arms alone. The deathlock chokes you with the strength of the whole body and unbalances you while doing so, and from it there is no escape.


LESSON 18
This lesson teaches you: --
THE ANKLE THROW
Giving you further versatility in dealing with an attack from behind, and a further education in the correct use of your body, and in unbalancing Assailant.

Name of Partner Date Commenced Ankle Throw
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Make a check mark against each trick each day you practice it.


THE ANKLE THROW
"TAKE HOLD"
Assailant grasps you around the waist from behind, below the arms, with his right foot between your legs. In this position he is well braced and is not so open to the previous methods of escape.
The usual counter is to grasp his knee, lift it up, and throw him if you are able.
This does not give half the leverage the following method does.
"ONE"
Lean well forward and grasp his ankle. Even if he is holding tightly make the effort from the Stahara and you will reach down.
It may be necessary sometimes to make a feint for another trick which he would defend by paying attention to another part of his body. You can then deliberately bend forward and pick up his ankle.
Do not try to pull his leg up by the arms only.
Stand up, making the effort from the Stahara and you will have twice the power.
Practice this slowly otherwise you will bang his head on the ground and thus summarily end the practice for the day.
In practice the Assailant must let go when he feels himself falling and so land gently on the mat.
In a real fight, if he holds on, fall on him and that will knock him out.


ADVANCED PRACTICE IN THE ANKLE THROW
When trying to throw Assailant by the ankle throw, if he retains his balance and hops around on his left leg it will be impossible to throw him by a straight pull forward.
Swing his foot away round to your left. This will unbalance him and you will throw him without any trouble.
Do not put your full force into the swing.
Have your Assailant let go as he falls. This will save him from your falling on top of him.
You will become expert in these tricks more quickly if you practice in this prescribed formal manner than if you make a wrestling match out of each trick.


WARNING
If Assailant does not let go you would fall on him like this and knock him out.


It is a very dangerous fall so avoid it by practicing formally.
You can become quite expert by formal practice.
Also pick up Assailant's left foot. Get him to hop around on his right retaining his balance.
Throw him by swinging to your right.
Practice this with each foot alternately until you no longer hesitate about the correct direction in which to swing him.
The Secrets of Jujitsu, A Complete Course in Self Defense, Book V

By Captain Allan Corstorphin Smith, U.S.A.
Winner of the Black Belt, Japan, 1916. Instructor of Hand-to-Hand Fighting, THE INFANTRY SCHOOL, Camp Benning, Columbus, Georgia and at United States Training Camps and Cantonments, 1917 and 1918.
In Seven Books.
BOOK FIVE
STAHARA PUBLISHING COMPANY
Columbus, Georgia, 1920.
***
This electronic version is copyright EJMAS © 2000. All rights reserved.
Contributed by Thomas J. Militello, a 15-year member of Astoria, New York's non-profit Horangi Taekwondo Dojang, which is headed by James Robison.
Readers interested in seeing film images should note the following film held by the National Archives and Record Administration:
NWDNM(m)-111-H-1180.
Title: Physical and Bayonet Training, 1918.
Scope and Content: Recruits at Camp Gordon, Georgia receive detailed instruction in boxing and jiu-jitsu. Wrestling and jiu-jitsu holds are used against a foe with a bayonet. Troops do calisthenics and play rough games calculated to make them physically fit.
35mm film, 15 minutes
Judging from responses from the US Army historians at Forts Myer and Benning, little biographical information is available concerning Captain Smith. Therefore readers with additional information are requested to contact the editor at jrsvinth@juno.com .
LESSON 19
This lesson teaches you: --
1. First defense against downward blow of knife. (The elbow break.)
2. The counter to the elbow break.)
Name of Partner Date Commenced Elbow Break Counter
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Make a check mark against each trick each day you practice it.


FIRST DEFENSE AGAINST DOWNWARD BLOW OF KNIFE (THE ELBOW BREAK)
Assailant steps forward with his right foot bringing down his right arm as if aiming a blow with a knife.
Step in with your left foot lowering your body slightly, and keep it perfectly erect.
Stop Assailant's right forearm with your left forearm.
Pass your right forearm under Assailant's upper arm, pulling his upper arm toward you and forcing his forearm back with your left forearm.
This is a much quicker and surer method of taking the elbow break than grasping his forearm with your hand.
Continue forcing his forearm back until your right hand comes onto the back of your left hand. This will unbalance him backwards.
To show position more clearly, my left hand is open in photo. Naturally it would be closed.
It is easy to break an arm, so although you perform the major operation quickly, do the minor operation slowly and gently.
Force his right hand back until he gives the signal of defeat.
The most important point is to unbalance Assailant and retain your own balance.
Allow one another to try this lock on the unresisting arm, repeatedly, slowly and carefully.
Continued practice will enable you to secure this grip like a flash.


DO NOT BECOME UNBALANCED
COUNTER TO ELBOW BREAK
In trying to get the elbow break the man on the right has stepped in and lost his balance.
He has thrown his elbow around opponent's upper arm instead of pulling it towards him. He has left opponent on balance, and he himself is off balance.
Opponent therefore has only to shove him backwards to cause him to fall to the ground.
Opponent is in a position, if he wishes, to throw him hard enough to knock him out.
By practicing this a few times you will learn not to become unbalanced while trying jujitsu tricks.


LESSON 20
This lesson teaches you: --
1. Escape from the elbow break.
2. Prevention of escape.
3. Wrong method of elbow break.
Name of Partner Date Commenced Escape Prevention Wrong
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Make a check mark against each trick each day you practice it.


ESCAPE FROM ELBOW BREAK
As Assailant slowly presses you down with the elbow break, slowly twist your body to the left, thus releasing your elbow and lowering your right hand..
It will then be easy for you to twist around, release your right hand, and give your opponent the elbow blow in the solar plexus with your left arm.
(The instructions are so worded that the veriest tyro will have no difficulty in doing the trick correctly and without danger.)


PREVENTION OF ESCAPE
Frustrate opponent's efforts to escape by pressing with your left forearm and pulling with your right forearm.
A little experimenting will show just how it is done.
In this practice, be cautious. Go slow.
By continuing the pressure on his elbow it is easy to force him to the ground. It is superfluous to trip him.
In case of necessity it is easy to break his arm or to hold him prisoner.


WRONG ELBOW LOCK
Some instructors teach you to block your Assailant's arm with your own right forearm.
Pass your left hand behind his forearm and grasp your right wrist.
Force his hand back until he quits.
THE COUNTER
The counter to this trick is obvious and easy.
Simply bend one knee, dropping down, thus relieving the pain in your elbow.
Raise the other knee, and kick him in the stomach.


LESSON 21
This lesson teaches you: --
The second defense against downward blow of knife.
It also teaches you the principle of the line of support.

Name of Partner Date Commenced Second Defense
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Make a check mark against each trick each day you practice it.


SECOND DEFENSE AGAINST DOWNWARD BLOW OF KNIFE
Assailant may frustrate your attempt to secure the elbow break by straightening his arm.
Immediately give up the idea of trying for the elbow break and instead, force his arm straight up and back.
Catch him on the throat with the space between the thumb and forefinger, of your right hand, pushing him back at right angles to his line of support.
This shows a trip by bringing your right leg behind his right leg. This can only be done when his right leg is forward.
It is superfluous, as if you strike him smartly on the neck, in the proper direction, he will go down like a ninepin.
If you are ever up against a man with a knife, the most important thing for you if you wish to survive, is to give him your knee, either before or after your hand has reached his throat.
Assailant again attacks you with his right arm stiff and straight making the elbow break impossible.
Again force his right arm up unbalancing him backwards.
He has stepped forward with his left foot this time making it impossible to trip his right leg as on previous page.
A trip is unnecessary as a blow to the throat with the right hand will knock him over backwards.
The direction of the blow must be at right angles to his line of support.
This demonstrates that the trip shown on previous page is unnecessary. You can throw your man in both cases much more quickly by the blow on the throat.
In practice simply unbalance him slightly until you feel that you could throw him with a little extra shove.


THE LINE OF SUPPORT
The line of support is a line drawn between your feet.
If the pressure you exert against opponent runs in the same direction as his line of support you are working against his strongest point.
To illustrate, when opponent has right leg forward, if you push against his left leg, you are working against his strongest point.
If his left leg is forward and you push against his right leg, you are fighting 100% of his strength.
Instead of that, if you work at right angles to his line of support, as illustrated in figures 128 and 130, you can always throw him, if you work neatly.
If on the other hand you work clumsily and allow him to divine your intention, he can change his line of support and bring it parallel to the direction of your pressure, and thus frustrate your intentions.
This principle I submit as the solution of the enigma propounded in the terse observation (credited alike to Bob Fitzsimmons, of cherished memory, and the more humble disciples of the cult of jujitsu), "The bigger they are, the harder they fall."
It also supplies the clue to the broader principles of jujitsu on which the statesmen, financiers, and economists, both of the Orient and Occident, base their diplomatic relations with each other.
No teacher at whose feet I have sat, or whose writings I have earnestly studied, has ever informed me of this principle.
I have had to find it out for myself, and I therefore submit it, I hope with pardonable pride, as my own discovery.
However, history relates that when Columbus showed a critical world how to stand an egg on its end, he was told that he arrogated too much credit to himself.
Similarly I may be told that my labored explanation is superfluous, and that I have simply stated a well-known principle of applied mechanics.
If that is so, I shall not press my point, but instead shall express pleasure and gratification that the principle is so thoroughly understood.
Will the kind reader retrace his steps to Book 4, and apply this principle to his execution of the back throw.
He may then review all the other lessons in this course, and apply this principle to every trick in which he should unbalance his opponent.
He may perhaps be generously inclined and admit that I have discovered a new principle in the applied mechanics of hand-to-hand fighting.
If so, I thank him sincerely.
If not, I shall simply remark that it is a hard world, and pass on to the next lesson.


LESSON 22
This lesson teaches you: --
The third defense against downward blow of knife.
It also teaches the comparative value of the three methods.

Name of Partner Date Commenced Third Defense, Kick Third Defense, Blow
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Make a check mark against each trick each day you practice it.


THIRD DEFENSE AGAINST DOWNWARD BLOW OF KNIFE
The quickest method of turning the tables on a man who attacks you with knife or pistol is to parry the blow with your forearm, stepping in and lowering the body slightly, keeping erect and well-balanced.
Kick him in the abdomen with the rear foot.
Bend your left knee slightly, this lowers your center of gravity and gives you more balance.
Make the effort from the Stahara, this makes the kick twice as powerful as if you merely used the leg muscles. (See note further down re "The Jujitsu Kick.")
This is a foul kick only to be used where Assailant is trying to kill you. That is the only circumstance under which such a foul blow would be justifiable.
A surer parry still is to block his blow above the elbow.
This necessitates stepping in closer and lowering your body more.
When you block his forearm, if he had a long knife it might reach your head, but if you block his upper arm you are quite safe.
Simultaneously give him a sharp blow on the abdomen, either above or below the belt.
This blow is made with a sharp jab, the return being as quick as the blow.
In practice, put your full strength into the blow but stop it a few inches from the target.
Whether you would use the kick or blow depends upon your distance from the Assailant.
If you are farther away, the kick would be better, if you are closer in, the punch would be quicker.
Although the knee kick to the crotch is not illustrated here, it is the first thing to do in an emergency, as was taught to you in Book Two.
If you are a certain distance from Assailant you would use the toe kick, Figure 132. In other positions you might use the punch, Figure 133. But you would always precede or follow up with the knee kick.
Merely filing this information away in your mind is no good. This course trains your subconscious by repeated practice of selected tricks to use the best combination in an emergency.


THE COMPARATIVE VALUE OF THE VARIOUS DEFENSES
On account of the ease with which an Assailant's arm can be broken, too high a value is apt to be placed on the elbow break. It is true that, once secured, the elbow break wins the fight, and enables the smaller man to take prisoner or disable his enemy.
There are many occasions where such a hold can be secured and it therefore should be mastered.
But in an actual fight against a man armed with a knife the chances of securing such a hold are only one in ten. The tactics taught in the third defense against downward blow give you a much better chance for your life.
Similarly the chances of securing the wrist twist taught in the first defense against downward blow are only about one in ten against a man with a knife.
The tactics taught in the second defense against upward blow are much more effective and reliable. See remarks below, under first defense against upward blow of knife.
In teaching men who were going to the war, all the training was directed towards making them kick or hit a vital spot rather than try for a hold.
Mr. Haneishi, the jujitsu expert I brought from Japan with me, besides being a professional teacher of the art is also a bone-setter, and general first-aid practitioner.
He was once called in to render first aid to a burglar who had come off second-best in an encounter with a householder. When Mr. Haneishi arrived on the scene the burglar was dead, and blood was trickling from his mouth.
"Ah, you struck him on the mouth," observed Mr. Haneishi.
"No, I gave him suigetsu [solar plexus strike]," replied the householder, who was over sixty, and from the use of this technical jujitsu term the old man revealed himself as a graduate of the school of jujitsu.
It seems that the burglar threatened him by brandishing a two-handed, razor-edged Japanese sword over his head, and demanded his money.
The old man advanced to give this, and the moment he was close up delivered the blow shown in Figure 133 with deadly effect. The man collapsed, and blood rushed from his mouth, showing that his internal organs were ruptured by the blow, which is delivered with a penetrating effect and an upward direction.
Lesson 23: First defense against upward blow of knife.
Lesson 24: Second defense against upward blow of knife.
Lesson 25: How to parry a blow, teaching unbalancing.
Lesson 26: How to sidestep a blow, teaching agility.
Lesson 27: Quickest way to throw a man after catching his foot.
Lesson 28: The inside catch: The backheel. Foot parry to kick.
Lesson 29: Going to the assistance of a friend.
Lesson 30: The elbow block.

Name of Partner Date Commenced Lesson 23 Lesson 24 Lesson 25 Lesson 26
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Name of Partner Date Commenced Lesson 27 Lesson 28 Lesson 29 Lesson 30
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Make a check mark against each lesson each day you practice it.


FIRST DEFENSE AGAINST UPWARD BLOW OF KNIFE
Block his blow with your left hand, taking care that your forearm is held correctly, otherwise you may get cut.
Seize the little finger side of his right hand with your right hand, and the thumb side of his hand with your other hand, your fingers on the palm.
(Before doing this trick practice the preliminary exercise for the wrist twist in Book 1.)
Twist his wrist to your left until he drops the knife.
You can either break his wrist or force him to the ground and kick him.
(Observe my positions in Figures 135 and 136, and note how the strength of the whole body is brought to bear.)
His wrist is twisted not by arm strength alone, but by turning the body.
The parry shown in Figure 134 is not nearly so good as the parry shown in Figure 138.
In Figure 134 the Assailant is still balanced and can continue to attack. In Figure 138 you can swing him off balance and he is then open to the knee kick to his crotch, a right hook to his jaw with your fist, or a blow with the heel of the hand below his chin.
A combination of the last three blows is much more reliable than an attempt to seize the hand of a quick knife-artist.


SECOND DEFENSE AGAINST UPWARD BLOW OF KNIFE
Assailant strikes an upward blow at your abdomen with the knife in his right hand.
Step back with your right foot, swinging on the ball of the left.
Parry the blow just at his elbow with your left hand. Keep your elbow close to your side.
Take advantage of his forward impetus and unbalance him to his left.
Strike him an upward blow below the chin with the heel of your hand.
This jerks his head back and the shock to his spine does greater damage than the blow itself.
Some women's wrists and hands are so weak that they cannot strike a serious blow with the fist. But they can with the heel of the hand.
If you are a good boxer you may use the right hook to the jaw.
(In practice, shove his head back, do not strike.)
This shows the WRONG WAY to parry the blow.
1. It takes longer to parry when you raise your elbow in this awkward fashion.
2. You are off balance and not in the best position to counter attack.
3. Your body is still in front and he may reach it with his knife.
HOW TO PARRY A BLOW
Suppose you try to frustrate an attack by parrying Assailant's left forearm with your right hand.
You deflect the blow of his left arm, certainly, but you leave him in a position to use his right.
Make your parry at the elbow and you will turn his whole body round and get him off balance, leaving an opening for a right hook to the jaw or whatever method of attack you may choose.
Take the position of each of these illustrations and go through the motions of parrying numerous blows.
This exercise is not to give you quickness in parrying, but, having parried, it teaches you the correct angle at which to unbalance your Assailant.
Quickness is cultivated in the next lesson.


THE SIDESTEP
Starting with the right foot behind him, Assailant lunges forward and makes a straight thrust at your abdomen.
Swing back the right foot, turning on the ball of the left, keeping your body perfectly erect and let the blow go past.


NOTES ON PRACTICE OF SIDESTEP
Practice the sidestep frequently, it is one of the best exercises for training you to quickness of eye and agility of movement.
I have never seen anyone but a jujitsu man make a movement exactly like this or the jujitsu kick, and it took years of observation and practice to discover just what they were doing, and how they did it.
With the illustrations and instructions given here, there is no reason why the reader should not master it right away.
Compare illustrations 144 and 145. The body swings round on the ball of the left foot, just like a door, the effort, the motive power, comes from the Stahara.
In Figure 145 the weight is evenly balanced between the legs, the knees are slightly bent, the body limber.
Have Assailant lunge at you with left hand also, swing back the left foot, turning on the ball of the right.


SIDESTEPPING THE KICK
Devote a good deal of time to this practice, both with right and left feet. See Figures 146 and 147.
My Assailant in Figure 146 is kicking with the jujitsu kick with the knee bent. This is such a swift kick that it is almost impossible to catch it. Do not let this fact worry you as you can learn to sidestep a great deal faster than the ordinary person can kick.
In practice, at first, Assailant should kick with the knee straight.


THE JUJITSU KICK
The jujitsu kick is given by raising the knee simultaneously with the toe flying out. The foot travels at a terrific speed, and the recovery is equally rapid, the foot being at once returned to the ground, or the kick repeated.
The great secret about the jujitsu kick both with regard to the speed and also the force of the blow is that the whole weight of the body goes into it. In practice "Put your Stahara" into it, and you will soon get it.
This kick is used only in emergencies of life or death.


QUICKEST WAY TO THROW A MAN AFTER CATCHING HIS LEG
When Assailant kicks at you, you should have sensed his intention almost before his foot has left the ground.
Suppose he kicks with his left foot.
You swing back your left foot, turning on the ball of your right so that you sidestep his kick.
At the same time catch his leg with your right hand.
Do not stop his leg when you catch it, but swing it up in the direction in which he is kicking.
This will at once put him right off balance.
Swing it right up and shove it back a little and he will fall back hard enough to be knocked out.
When you practice this have a third party ready to catch the man who is thrown, otherwise your studies will probably be discontinued through sudden cessation of interest by the party of the second part.
You can practice it without throwing him.
The whole trick is done with one swift movement.


THE INSIDE CATCH
Sometimes you may catch a man's leg inside, instead of outside. That is, you might sidestep to the left and catch his left foot with your left hand.
That is not so scientific as the outside catch, as it leaves you more open to an attack from his hands.
The best method of throwing him here is the same as in the outside catch. Raise his leg right up and throw him over backwards.


THE BACKHEEL
Here is another method. Change his leg over to your right hand. Bring your left hand onto his shoulder (in a fight, onto his throat), unbalancing him backwards, stepping inside his right heel with your left foot.
In practice it is unnecessary to throw him.
Just get him off balance to the point where you know you could throw him.
Retain your own balance by keeping your strength in the Stahara.


UNSCIENTIFIC METHOD
Your arm is round his waist and you are throwing him by strength. It is much slower, and he can hold on to you and perhaps prevent your throwing him
In Figure 151, by placing your hand on his shoulder you instantly unbalance him and take away his strength.
Practice this with both feet for the experience it will give you in personal contact.


FOOT PARRY TO KICK
If a man tries to kick you, say with the left foot, one of the quickest ways to counter it is to swing round on the ball of your left foot, raising your right leg, and catching him on the shin bone with the edge of your shoe.
Drive your shoe down on his shin and you will incapacitate him temporarily and thus leave him an easy victim to your next aggressive move.
Practice it without actually kicking, slowly at first. Later work up to speed.


HOW TO RESCUE A FRIEND WHO IS HELD UP
ONE:
Steal up quickly behind the man who is pointing the pistol.
TWO:
Lay your left hand on his upper arm, just behind the elbow, and your right hand on his wrist.
THREE:
Shove his elbow forward and jerk his forearm back, snapping his elbow, and the pistol will fall from his nerveless hand.
Swiftness is essential in knocking his forearm up, otherwise he will fire as you take hold.
The success of this trick depends on proper coordination of your movements, which you will acquire by a little practice.
In practice, do this so slowly that there is no danger of injuring your opponent's elbow. He will stand still and let you experiment, and you must allow him the same privilege.
You can easily twist away while he does it slowly, but if you do so he will never learn the trick.
Done quickly, there is no escape, but you must avoid speed in your first practices.
Experiment very slowly until you find the correct angle at which to push his elbow forward, and pull his wrist back.
After it is mastered, you may try pulling him back to the ground with this hold.
FOR USE AGAINST BURGLARS
The shock of breaking his elbow will be sufficient to knock the fight out of any ordinary burglar, but there are some men who are so determined and vigorous that they would still carry on the fight.
If you stooped down to pick up his pistol, he would kick you in the face, and then he would recover his pistol with his left hand. Therefore you must not merely break his arm, but throw him at the same time.


THE WRONG KIND OF JUJITSU
This is given as an example of the kind of jujitsu not to practice.
Seize his right wrist with your left hand. Place your right hand behind his upper arm, above his elbow. Push with your left and pull with your right and his arm will break.
CRITICISM: This trick is no good because:
First: It is dangerous to practice on another's elbows. It is a "hit or miss" trick. If ever you got it on an armed ruffian you would require to break his arm immediately as you could not hold him and make him quit.
Second: If he bends his elbow before you get hold, you have not enough leverage to break his arm.
Third: It is difficult to catch his wrist without being cut.
If you are ever taught a trick that is open to such criticisms you had better discard it as not of much account.


THE ELBOW BLOW
Assailant aims a blow at your head with a straight swing.
Step in with your right foot, lowering your body and ducking so that the swing passes harmlessly over your head.
At the same time swing your right elbow into position shown in Figure 159.
Swing your elbow in the opposite direction, right into his ribs or midriff.
This is one of the most wicked blows known and will knock him out.
In practice, put all your force into the blow but stop it three or four inches from Assailant's ribs.
Practice ducking, so that when you are in position of Figure 159 your body is erect and balanced. At first you will probably be in too bent a position, in which you cannot move quickly nor strike strongly.
As Assailant knows you are going to duck every time, he will be tempted to strike lower and catch you as you duck. He must not do so however.
The ruffian who makes such a blow would not know you were going to duck, and you would "get him" before he could change his plans.
The straight swing is not the kind of blow a boxer would deliver, but is often used by an uneducated and ignorant Assailant. A man with a club might also attack you by such a swing, and against such an attack, this is the best defense.
Let Assailant aim a blow at your temple with his open hand. It is unnecessary to use a stick in practice.
This exercise will quicken the eye.


THROW YOUR HAT IN HIS EYES
Face to face with an armed man, try to throw your hat in his eyes and spring in before he can see clearly.
If you have not your hat, use anything, your handkerchief, a plate, a bottle or glass.
If a man comes at you with a knife, particularly if he assumes the boxing attitude, the left foot and hand advanced and the knife held in the right hand thrusting upwards, you are up against an ugly customer who knows how to use his knife. If you have a pistol you had better shoot him before he gets near you.
If you have no pistol do not rush him, but make a "strategic retreat," "spar for an opening." If you are in a room, keep the furniture between you, never let him get you in a corner. Use a chair or something and threaten his head with it, and if he gets too near, bring it down on his head.
Try above all things to throw something in his face, water or some stronger beverage. If you are in the open pick up stones, mud, anything, and try to get it in his eyes.
The above instructions will be so simple and obvious to some people that their inclusion here may seem superfluous. All people however are not equally gifted and there are some to whom this advice may be welcome.
Unless you discipline your mind by thinking along these lines in times of safety, the moment of danger may find you unprepared.

The Secrets of Jujitsu, A Complete Course in Self Defense, Book VI

By Captain Allan Corstorphin Smith, U.S.A.
Winner of the Black Belt, Japan, 1916. Instructor of Hand-to-Hand Fighting, THE INFANTRY SCHOOL, Camp Benning, Columbus, Georgia and at United States Training Camps and Cantonments, 1917 and 1918.
In Seven Books.
BOOK SIX
STAHARA PUBLISHING COMPANY
Columbus, Georgia, 1920.
***
This electronic version is copyright EJMAS © 2001. All rights reserved.
Contributed by Thomas J. Militello, a 15-year member of Astoria, New York's non-profit Horangi Taekwondo Dojang, which is headed by James Robison.
The class of tricks taught in Book Six is very effective, but do not make the mistake of thinking that all you have to do is merely to go and seize anyone, even the most burly opponent, to reduce him to a quivering heap of helpless humanity.
Tricks like the Wrist Twist are best done after an Assailant has actually got hold of you. See Book Five.
They are not so practicable when an Assailant is apparently going to strike you. The proper defenses for such cases have previously been taught in this course.
The "Reverse Wrist Twist" shown below depends for its success upon the way you twist his wrist by the weight of your body in moving from the position of Figure 170 to that of Figure 171. The same remarks apply when you try it on a man who has seized your hair. See Figure 173.
By practicing these four Wrist Twist Tricks you will gradually discover how to use your body to offset the strength in the hands of a more powerful man.
Lesson 31. Wrist Twist when throat is seized.
Lesson 32. Wrist Twist when coat is seized.
Lesson 33. Reverse Wrist Twist when throat is seized.
Lesson 34. Reverse Wrist Twist when Hair is seized.

Name of Partner Date Commenced Lesson 31 Lesson 32 Lesson 33 Lesson 34
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Lesson 35. The Hammerlock.
Lesson 36. The Hammerlock with one hand. On two men.
Lesson 37. Escape from Hammerlock.
Lesson 38. A swift method of making an arrest.

Name of Partner Date Commenced Lesson 35 Lesson 36 Lesson 37 Lesson 38
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Make a check mark against each trick each day you practice it.


WRIST TWIST WHEN THROAT IS SEIZED
Assailant seizes your throat.
Bring your left thumb onto the back of his right hand and your fingers around the root of his thumb. (If Assailant's hand is stronger than yours, you cannot secure the wrist twist by hand strength. You must unbalance Assailant to the point where his hand exerts only 20% of its power. Experiment and study the figures.)
Hold his right hand tightly against your body and step back with your left foot, thus pulling him off balance.
Bring your right thumb onto the back of his hand and your right fingers onto his palm.
Twist his wrist, bringing him into the position of Figure 163.
Keep him off balance all the time you are twisting. Make him give the signal of defeat.
It is easy to force opponent onto his back by the pressure on his wrist. It is unnecessary to trip him. In this position you can easily hold him prisoner as long as you choose.
If the circumstances call for it, you may disable him by breaking his wrist.


WRIST TWIST USED ON MAN WHO SEIZES YOUR COAT
Assailant seizes the right side of your coat with his left hand.
Place your right hand on the top of his left hand, fingers up on his palm, and your thumb on the back of his hand with the correct wrist grip.
Hold his hand firmly against your side. Step back with the right foot so that you pull him off balance and twist his wrist slightly.
By holding his hand firmly against your body you will more easily be able to twist his wrist.
Bring the thumb of your left hand onto the back of his right and your fingers onto his palm.
Twist his wrist slowly into position of Figure 168, keeping him off balance all the time, and make him give the signal of defeat.
THE REVERSE WRIST TWIST WHEN THROAT IS SEIZED
Assailant seizes you by the throat.
Bring your right hand up beneath his left arm. Place the root of your right thumb on the back of his right hand, and your fingers round the little-finger edge of his hand, grasping the palm.
Hold his hand tightly to your body and step back with your left foot, thus pulling him off balance.
Step back with your right foot, swinging your left shoulder forward, twisting his hand by the weight of your body.
Bring the root of your left thumb onto the back of his right hand and the left fingers onto his palm.
Step back, pulling him off balance.
Press his palm directly towards him, exerting all your pressure on the back of his hand. You can easily disable him by breaking his wrist.
In practice do it slowly and release him the instant he quits.


REVERSE WRIST TWIST WHEN YOUR HAIR IS SEIZED
Assailant seizes your hair with his right hand.
Place your right hand on the back of his hand with your little fingers encircling the little finger edge to his palm. Do not try to pull his hand off. Press it firmly down onto your head.
Step back with your right foot, bending your head away, forward and to your right. Keep pressing his hand tightly down on your head. Pull him forward off balance until his hand loses its power.
With the root of your right thumb, press the back of his hand towards him. Step farther back, pulling him more off balance. Bring palm of your left hand onto the back of his right, with your fingers around the root of his thumb. This will make him let go.
Press the palm of his hand directly towards him and rise to position of Figure 175.
In making him give the signal of defeat, be careful to do it slowly, otherwise you may injure him.


WRONG METHOD
Carefully study Figure 176, where I have bent forward, instead of swinging to my right.
My Assailant is on balance. His hand is gripping my hair with 100% of its strength and I am unable to pull it off.
If your practice of this trick has not been successful, you will find that you have been omitting to unbalance your Assailant.
Assailant at first should not grip the hair, but simply lay his hand on opponent's head until the trick is mastered.


THE HAMMERLOCK STANDING
When a man stands naturally, the backs of his hands are slightly towards the front.
Lay your right palm on the back of his right hand, your thumb round the root of his thumb and your fingers around the little-finger side of his hand. Pass your left hand outside his arm and place it behind and above his elbow.
Pull his elbow outwards, and towards you. Press his hand straight behind him, stepping forward so that your chest comes against his upper arm. Keep his arm in that position by the weight of your body.
Slip your left hand to his wrist and your right hand to his elbow. As you do this, step behind him. Press his elbow in, toward the small of his back. Press his hand directly toward his right shoulder.
Keep your strength and balance in your Stahara. Force him onto his tiptoes and you can march him where you will.
This is a valuable hold for policemen, and I will make a suggestion about their practice. Big strong men are apt to do tricks such as this by sheer strength. If, instead, you will do a certain amount of practice without using your strength, you will become more scientific. You will discover the lines of least resistance. You will find out how to unbalance your man. As a result you will be able to use your strength more effectively.
Tricks like this depend upon the element of surprise for success and cannot be done in a jujitsu match where each opponent is on guard.


TO MARCH A PRISONER WITH ONE HAND
Secure Hammerlock first. Then, slip your left forearm between his right forearm and his back until your elbow is below his right wrist and your hand on his upper arm.
If you let the pressure relax, he may escape, but press his wrist upward with your elbow, keep the full strain on his elbow and shoulder and he cannot escape.
In your preliminary practice, be careful. Rather allow opponent to escape than hurt him.
You can march two men prisoners by this method.
As they bend forward to escape, lower your body with them. Keep the weight of your Stahara on their elbows.
This picture is taken at the moment both men are doing their utmost to escape. It is not strength that prevents them from escaping. It is science.


HOW TO ESCAPE FROM A HAMMERLOCK
If your Assailant omits to maintain fullest pressure, if he fails to keep you "on your toes" - bend forward letting your arm come straight and bringing your left shoulder round towards your right.
You can free your arm and if necessary attack opponent with your left fist.


SWIFT METHOD OF MAKING AN ARREST
A man you wish to take prisoner is walking to meet and pass you unconscious of any danger. (My right hand is held thus for purposes of instruction. In reality you would conceal your intentions.)
As you pass him, place the palm of your right hand on the back of his left, your thumb around the little finger edge of his hand. Your left hand is placed inside and above his elbow.
Wheel round quickly facing the way he is going, and continue walking with him. Your left arm merely pulls his elbow inside your right forearm.
Raise your right forearm, bringing him into position of Figure 187.
Exert pressure on the little finger side on the back of his hand, pressing it towards your left and downwards. This will bring him onto his toes, unbalanced, and you can march him where you will.
(If necessary, use both hands to twist his left hand until you learn the correct angle, when one hand will be ample.)


VERBUM SAP: A WORD TO THE WISE IS SUFFICIENT
Practice these tricks all you can. Practice them with as many different people as you can. But do not go around looking for unsuspecting victims to try them out on.
There is a time and place for everything. So do not make yourself a nuisance by selfishly doing a "stunt" on a friend at an inopportune time or place. You may hurt his feelings, or through your own inexpertness you may injure him.
The better plan would be to interest him in your work and to have a regular practice with him, thereby benefiting him as well as yourself.
Lesson 39. The "Funny-bone Come-along."
Lesson 40. To eject a troublesome visitor.
Lesson 41. Turning the tables on a "Hand-squeezer."
Lesson 42. How to make a man let go.

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Lesson 43. Finger hold and Escape.
Lesson 44. A simple Wrist-break.
Lesson 45. An amusing Neck-hold.

Name of Partner Date Commenced Lesson 43 Lesson 44 Lesson 45
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Make a check mark against each trick each day you practice it.


THE JAPANESE POLICEMAN'S "COME-ALONG"
A trick known in this country by the above name (but not in Japan, where I have never seen it used), is to seize opponent's left wrist with your left hand. Pass your right arm over his left arm. Bring your forearm under his forearm, and clasp your left wrist with your right hand.
If you are more powerful than opponent, you can cause him considerable pain and force him to come along. But if he is more powerful than you, he will have no difficulty in withdrawing his arm from your hold and in striking you in the face if he so desires.
A variation of this trick, wherein you grasp his left palm instead of his left wrist, is a little better.


ANOTHER METHOD
By passing your forearm behind his elbow with the palm of his hand up, you can break his elbow by jerking his arm down. Unless you go the length of breaking his arm, however, a stronger man can escape from this hold.
You cannot control your prisoner in practice, for by the time you begin to cause him pain, you have almost wrenched his elbow ligaments.


THE "FUNNY-BONE COME-ALONG" - AN INSIDE WRINKLE
There is a sensitive spot two inches above the elbow on the inside of the arm. (Press the end of your thumb into your own arm and discover its exact location.) The secret of this trick is to press the sharp edge of your wrist-bone against this spot.
To expose this spot to wrist-bone pressure, his thumb should be uppermost, not his palm.
Hold tightly with your upper arm and press his hand straight down, his little finger being underneath.
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