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Настольная Книга Террориста (Аngl)


 

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1.0 ВВЕДЕНИЕ
L.T.D. Pyro-Technologies, подразделение L.T.D Industries, представляет
первую редакцию Настольной Книги Террориста. L.T.D. Industries не несет
ответственности за любые злоупотребления содержащейся в данной
публикации информации. Данная публикация ставит своей целью показать
многие приемы и методы, используемые этими людьми в нашей и других
странах для совершения террористических актов. Содержащаяся здесь
техническая информация может быть получена в общественных библиотеках и
может быть использована террористом с минимальным снаряжением. Это
становится ысе более пугающим, так как любой маньяк или уголовник может
получить данную информацию и использовать ее. Процессы и
приспособления, описанные здесь, НЕ ДОЛЖНЫ БЫТЬ ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНЫ НИ ПРИ
КАКИХ ОБСТОЯТЕЛЬСТВАХ! СЕРЬЕЗНЫЙ ВРЕД ИЛИ СМЕРТЬ МОЖЕТ ЯВИТЬСЯ
СЛЕДСТВИЕМ ПОПЫТКИ СОЗДАТЬ ЧТО-ЛИБО ИЗ ДАННОЙ ПУБЛИКАЦИИ. ЭТО СДЕЛАНО
ПРОСТО ДЛЯ ПРИЯТНОГО ЧТЕНИЯ, А НЕ ДЛЯ ДЕЙСТВИЯ!

1.1 Содержание
~~~~~~~~~~
2.0 ....... BUYING EXPLOSIVES AND PROPELLANTS
2.01 ........ Black Powder
2.02 ........ Pyrodex
2.03 ........ Rocket Engine Powder
2.04 ........ Rifle/Shotgun Powder
2.05 ........ Flash Powder
2.06 ........ Ammonium Nitrate
2.1 ....... ACQUIRING CHEMICALS
2.11 ........ Techniques for Picking Locks
2.2 .. LIST OF USEFUL HOUSEHOLD CHEMICALS AND AVAILABILITY
2.3 ........ PREPARATION OF CHEMICALS
2.31 ........ Nitric Acid
2.32 ........ Sulfuric Acid
2.33 ........ Ammonium Nitrate
3.0 ....... EXPLOSIVE RECIPES
3.01 ........ Explosive Theory
3.1 ....... IMPACT EXPLOSIVES
3.11 ........ Ammonium Triiodide Crystals
3.12 ........ Mercury Fulminate
3.13 ........ Nitroglycerine
3.14 ........ Picrates
3.2 ....... LOW ORDER EXPLOSIVES
3.21 ........ Black Powder
3.22 ........ Nitrocellulose
3.23 ........ Fuel + Oxodizer mixtures
3.24 ........ Perchlorates
3.3 ....... HIGH ORDER EXPLOSIVES
3.31 ........ R.D.X. (Cyclonite)
3.32 ........ Ammonium Nitrate
3.33 ........ ANFOS
3.34 ........ T.N.T.
3.35 ........ Potassium Chlorate
3.36 ........ Dynamite
3.37 ........ Nitrostarch Explosives
3.38 ........ Picric Acid
3.39 ........ Ammonium Picrate (Explosive D)
3.40 ........ Nitrogen Trichloride
3.41 ........ Lead Azide
3.5 ....... OTHER "EXPLOSIVES"
3.51 ........ Thermit
3.52 ........ Molotov Cocktails
3.53 ........ Chemical Fire Bottle
3.54 ........ Bottled Gas Explosives
4.0 ....... USING EXPLOSIVES
4.1 ....... SAFETY
4.2 ....... IGNITION DEVICES
4.21 ........ Fuse Ignition
4.22 ........ Impact Ignition
4.23 ........ Electrical Ignition
4.24 ........ Electro - Mechanical Ignition
4.241 ....... Mercury Switches
4.242 ....... Tripwire Switches
4.243 ....... Radio Control Detonators
4.3 ....... DELAYS
4.31 ........ Fuse Delays
4.32 ........ Timer Delays
4.33 ........ Chemical Delays
4.4 ....... EXPLOSIVE CONTAINERS
4.41 ........ Paper Containers
4.42 ........ Metal Containers
4.43 ........ Glass Containers
4.44 ........ Plastic Containers
4.5 ....... ADVANCED USES FOR EXPLOSIVES
4.51 ........ Shaped Charges
4.52 ........ Tube Explosives
4.53 ........ Atomized Particle Explosions
4.54 ........ Lightbulb Bombs
4.55 ........ Book Bombs
4.56 ........ Phone Bombs
5.0 ....... SPECIAL AMMUNITION FOR PROJECTILE WEAPONS
5.1 ....... PROJECTILE WEAPONS (PRIMITIVE)
5.11 ........ Bow and Crossbow Ammunition
5.12 ........ Blowgun Ammunition
5.13 ........ Wrist Rocket and Slingshot Ammunition
5.2 ....... PROJECTILE WEAPONS (FIREARMS)
5.21 ........ Handgun Ammunition
5.22 ........ Shotguns
5.3 ....... PROJECTILE WEAPONS (COMPRESSED GAS)
5.31 ........ .177 Caliber B.B Gun Ammunition
5.32 ........ .22 Caliber Pellet Gun Ammunition
6.0 ....... ROCKETS AND CANNONS
6.1 ....... ROCKETS
6.11 ........ Basic Rocket-Bomb
6.12 ........ Long Range Rocket-Bomb
6.13 ........ Multiple Warhead Rocket-Bombs
6.2 ........ CANNONS
6.21 ........ Basic Pipe Cannon
6.22 ........ Rocket-Firing Cannon
7.0 ....... PYROTECHNICA ERRATA
7.1 ......... Smoke Bombs
7.2 ......... Colored Flames
7.3 ......... Tear Gas
7.4 ......... Fireworks
7.41 ........ Firecrackers
7.42 ........ Skyrockets
7.43 ........ Roman Candles
8.0 ....... LISTS OF SUPPLIERS AND FURTHER INFORMATION
9.0 ....... CHECKLIST FOR RAIDS ON LABS
10.0 ...... USEFUL PYROCHEMISTRY

2.0 ПОКУПКА ВЗРЫВЧАТКИ И РАКЕТНОГО ТОПЛИВА
Почти в любом городе есть оружейный магазин и аптека. Это два основных
места, посещаемых террористами для приобретения материалов для создания
взрывчатки. Все, что требуется, это немного знаний об используемых
невзрывчатых материалах. Порох, к примеру, используется в огнестрельном
оружии. Он бывает различных "видов", отличающихся размерами. Вид пороха
определяется калибром используемого оружия; высококачественный вид
пороха должен сгорать слишком быстро в оружии неподходящего калибра.
Основное правило: чем мельче частицы пороха, тем быстрее он сгорает.
2.01 ПОРОХ
Порох обычно бывает трех видов. Как говорилось выше, самый мелкий
сгорает наиболее быстро. Скорость сгорания крайне важна в бомбах. Так
как взрыв происходит за счет быстрого увеличения объема газа в
замкнутом пространстве, для осуществления взрыва требуется
быстросгорающий порошок. Ниже приведены три основных вида пороха,
вместе с калибром оружия, в котором он обычно применяется. Обычно, для
наиболее быстрого сгорания, используют FFF. Однако используют и другие
виды из приведенного ниже списка:
ВИД КАЛИБР ПРИМЕР ОРУЖИЯ
~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
F .50 или выше пушки; некоторые винтовки
FF .36 - .50 большие пистолеты; маленькие винтовки
FFF .36 или меньше пистолеты; крупнокалиберные пистолеты
Вид FFF сгорает наиболее быстро из-за меньшего размера частиц, за счет
чего увеличивается площадь поверхности сгорания. Применение крупных
видов будет обсуждено позднее. Цена на порох, за фунт, около $8.50 -
$9.00. Цена не зависит от вида, так что для экономии времени и работы
наиболее часто покупают наиболее высококачественный вид пороха.
/*Для изготовления бомб чаще всего используют бездымный порох (более
высокая скорость сгорания и больший психологический эффект) который
можно приобрести в охотничьих магазинах при наличии охотничьего билета.
Распространенный на территории СНГ артиллерийский порох для
изготовления бомб не применяется из-за довольно низкой скорости
сгорания, даже в измельченном состоянии, так как в него вводят
специальные замедлители. Прим.переводчика*/
Наиболее серьезной проблемой с порохом является его способность к
возгоранию от статического электричества и его тенденция к поглощению
влаги из воздуха. Для его безопасного измельчения создатель бомбы
должен использовать пластиковую ложку и деревянную салатницу. Беря
маленькими порциями, он или она должны давить порошок ложкой и
измельчать его серией ударов или круговых движений, но не слишком
сильными нажатиями. Он готов к использованию, когда превратится в муку.
Однако, требуемое качаество сильно зависит от типа создаваемого
устройства; очевидно, невозможно измельчить достаточное количество
порошка для заполнения трубки радиусом 4 дюйма и длиной 1 фут.
2.02 ПИРОДЕКС

Pyrodex is a synthetic powder that is used like black
powder. It comes in the same grades, but it is more expensive
per pound. However, a one pound container of pyrodex contains
more material by volume than a pound of black powder. It is
much easier to crush to a very fine powder than black powder,
and it is considerably safer and more reliable. This is
because it will not be set off by static electricity, as black
can be, and it is less inclined to absorb moisture. It costs
about $10.00 per pound. It can be crushed in the same manner
as black powder, or it can be dissolved in boiling water and
dried.
2.03 ROCKET ENGINE POWDER
One of the most exciting hobbies nowadays is model
rocketry. Estes is the largest producer of model rocket kits
and engines. Rocket engines are composed of a single large
grain of propellant. This grain is surrounded by a fairly
heavy cardboard tubing. One gets the propellant by slitting
the tube lengthwise, and unwrapping it like a paper towel
roll. When this is done, the grey fire clay at either end of
the propellant grain must be removed. This is usually done
gently with a plastic or brass knife. The material is
exceptionally hard, and must be crushed to be used. By
gripping the grain on the widest setting on a set of pliers,
and putting the grain and powder in a plastic bag, the powder
will not break apart and shatter all over. This should be
done to all the large chunks of powder, and then it should be
crushed like black powder. Rocket engines come in various
sizes, ranging from 1/4 A - 2T to the incredibly powerful D
engines. The larger the engine, the more expensive. D
engines come in packages of three, and cost about $5.00 per
package. Rocket engines are perhaps the single most useful
item sold in stores to a terrorist, since they can be used as
is, or can be cannibalized for their explosive powder.
2.04 RIFLE/SHOTGUN POWDER
Rifle powder and shotgun powder are really the same from
a practicle standpoint. They are both nitrocellulose based
propellants. They will be referred to as gunpowder in all
future references.
Gunpowder is made by the action of concentrated nitric and
sulfuric acid upon cotton. This material is then dissolved by
solvents and then reformed in the desired grain size.
When dealing with gunpowder, the grain size is not nearly as
important as that of black powder. Both large and small
grained gunpowder burn fairly slowly compared to black powder
when unconfined, but when it is confined, gunpowder burns both
hotter and with more gaseous expansion, producing more
pressure. Therefore, the grinding process that is often
necessary for other propellants is not necessary for
gunpowder. Gunpowder costs about $9.00 per pound. Any idiot
can buy it, since there are no restrictions on rifles or
shotguns in the U.S.
2.05 FLASH POWDER
Flash powder is a mixture of powdered zirconium metal
and various oxidizers. It is extremely sensitive to heat or
sparks, and should be treated with more care than black
powder, with which it should NEVER be mixed. It is sold in
small containers which must be mixed and shaken before use. It
is very finely powdered, and is available in three speeds:
fast, medium, and slow. The fast flash powder is the best for
using in explosives or detonators. It burns very rapidly,
regardless of confinement or packing, with a hot white
"flash", hence its name. It is fairly expensive, costing
about $11.00. It is sold in magic shops and theatre supply
stores.
2.06 AMMONIUM NITRATE
Ammonium nitrate is a high explosive material that is
often used as a commercial "safety explosive" It is very
stable, and is difficult to ignite with a match. It will only
light if the glowing, red-hot part of a match is touching it.
It is also difficult to detonate; (the phenomenon of
detonation will be explained later) it requires a large
shockwave to cause it to go high explosive. Commercially, it
is sometimes mixed with a small amount of nitroglycerine to
increase its sensitivity. Ammonium nitrate is used in the
"Cold-Paks" or "Instant Cold", available in most drug stores.
The "Cold Paks" consist of a bag of water, surrounded by a
second plastic bag containing the ammonium nitrate. To get the
ammonium nitrate, simply cut off the top of the outside bag,
remove the plastic bag of water, and save the ammonium nitrate
in a well sealed, airtight container, since it is rather
hydroscopic, i.e. it tends to absorb water from the air. It is
also the main ingredient in many fertilizers.
2.1 ACQUIRING CHEMICALS
The first section deals with getting chemicals legally.
This section deals with "procuring" them. The best place to
steal chemicals is a college. Many state schools have all of
their chemicals out on the shelves in the labs, and more in
their chemical stockrooms.

Evening is the best time to enter lab buildings, as there are
the least number of people in the buildings, and most of the
labs will still be unlocked. One simply takes a bookbag, wears
a dress shirt and jeans, and tries to resemble a college
freshman. If anyone asks what such a person is doing, the
thief can simply say that he is looking for the polymer
chemistry lab, or some other chemistry-related department
other than the one they are in. One can usually find out where
the various labs and departments in a building are by calling
the university. There are, of course other techniques for
getting into labs after hours, such as placing a piece of
cardboard in the latch of an unused door, such as a back exit.
Then, all one needs to do is come back at a later hour. Also,
before this is done, terrorists check for security systems. If
one just walks into a lab, even if there is someone there, and
walks out the back exit, and slip the cardboard in the latch
before the door closes, the person in the lab will never know
what happened. It is also a good idea to observe the building
that one plans to rob at the time that one plans to rob it
several days before the actual theft is done. This is
advisable since the would-be thief should know when and if the
campus security makes patrols through buildings. Of course, if
none of these methods are successful, there is always section
2.11, but as a rule, college campus security is pretty poor,
and nobody suspects another person in the building of doing
anything wrong, even if they are there at an odd hour.
2.11 TECHNIQUES FOR PICKING LOCKS
If it becomes necessary to pick a lock to enter a lab,
the world's most effective lockpick is dynamite, followed by a
sledgehammer. There are unfortunately, problems with noise
and excess structural damage with these methods. The next
best thing, however, is a set of army issue lockpicks. These,
unfortunately, are difficult to acquire. If the door to a lab
is locked, but the deadbolt is not engaged, then there are
other possibilities. The rule here is: if one can see the
latch, one can open the door. There are several devices which
facilitate freeing the latch from its hole in the wall. Dental
tools, stiff wire ( 20 gauge ), specially bent aluminum from
cans, thin pocket-knives, and credit cards are the tools of
the trade. The way that all these tools and devices are uses
is similar: pull, push, or otherwise move the latch out of its
hole in the wall, and pull the door open. This is done by
sliding whatever tool that you are using behind the latch, and
pulling the latch out from the wall. To make an aluminum-can
lockpick, terrorists can use an aluminum can and carefully cut
off the can top and bottom. Cut off the cans' ragged ends.
Then, cut the open-ended cylinder so that it can be flattened
out into a single long rectangle. This should then be cut into
inch wide strips. Fold the strips in 1/4 inch increments (1).
One will have a long quadruple-thick 1/4 inch wide strip of
aluminum. This should be folded into an L-shape, a J-shape, or
a U-shape. This is done by folding. The pieces would look like
this:



(1)
____________________________________________________ V
1/4 |__________________________________________________| |
1/4 |__________________________________________________| |
1/4 |__________________________________________________| |
1/4 |__________________________________________________| |
^
1 inch
Fold along lines to make a single quadruple-thick piece
of aluminum. This should then be folded to produce an L,J,or U
shaped device that looks like this:
__________________________________________
/ ________________________________________|
| |
| | L-shaped
| |
| |
|_|
_____________________________
/ ___________________________|
| |
| | J-shaped
| |
| |________
\________|
_____________________
/ ___________________|
| |
| |
| | U-shaped
| |
| |____________________
\____________________|
All of these devices should be used to hook the latch of
a door and pull the latch out of its hole. The folds in the
lockpicks will be between the door and the wall, and so the
device will not unfold, if it is made properly.
2.2 LIST OF USEFUL HOUSEHOLD CHEMICALS AND THEIR AVAILABILITY
Anyone can get many chemicals from hardware stores,
supermarkets, and drug stores to get the materials to make
explosives or other dangerous compounds. A would-be terrorist
would merely need a station wagon and some money to acquire
many of the chemicals named here.




Chemical Used In Available at
______________________________________________________________
alcohol, ethyl * alcoholic beverages liquor stores
solvents (95% min. for both) hardware stores
______________________________________________________________
ammonia + CLEAR household ammonia supermarkets/7eleven
______________________________________________________________
ammonium instant-cold paks, drug stores,
nitrate fertilizers medical supply stores
______________________________________________________________
nitrous oxide pressurizing whip cream party supply stores
______________________________________________________________
magnesium firestarters surplus/camping stores
______________________________________________________________
lecithin vitamins pharmacies/drug stores
______________________________________________________________
mineral oil cooking, laxative supermarket/drug stores
______________________________________________________________
mercury @ mercury thermometers supermarkets/hardware stores
______________________________________________________________
sulfuric acid uncharged car batteries automotive stores
______________________________________________________________
glycerine ? pharmacies/drug stores
______________________________________________________________
sulfur gardening gardening/hardware store
______________________________________________________________
charcoal charcoal grills supermarkets/gardening stores
______________________________________________________________
sodium nitrate fertilizer gardening store
______________________________________________________________
cellulose (cotton) first aid drug/medical supply stores
______________________________________________________________
strontium nitrate road flares surplus/auto stores,
______________________________________________________________
fuel oil kerosene stoves surplus/camping stores,
______________________________________________________________
bottled gas propane stoves surplus/camping stores,
______________________________________________________________
potassium water purification purification plants
permanganate
______________________________________________________________
hexamine or hexamine stoves surplus/camping stores
methenamine (camping)
______________________________________________________________
nitric acid ^ cleaning printing printing shops
plates photography stores
______________________________________________________________
iodine & first aid drug stores
______________________________________________________________
sodium perchlorate solidox pellets hardware stores
for cutting torches
______________________________________________________________

notes: * ethyl alcohol is mixed with methyl alcohol when it is
used as a solvent. Methyl alcohol is very poisonous. Solvent
alcohol must be at least 95% ethyl alcohol if it is used to
make mercury fulminate. Methyl alcohol may prevent mercury
fulminate from forming.
+ Ammonia, when bought in stores comes in a variety of forms.
The pine and cloudy ammonias should not be bought; only the
clear ammonia should be used to make ammonium triiodide
crystals.
@ Mercury thermometers are becoming a rarity, unfortunately.
They may be hard to find in most stores. Mercury is also used
in mercury switches, which are available at electronics
stores. Mercury is a hazardous substance, and should be kept
in the thermometer or mercury switch until used. It gives off
mercury vapors which will cause brain damage if inhaled. For
this reason, it is a good idea not to spill mercury, and to
always use it outdoors. Also, do not get it in an open cut;
rubber gloves will help prevent this.
^ Nitric acid is very difficult to find nowadays. It is
usually stolen by bomb makers, or made by the process
described in a later section. A desired concentration for
making explosives about 70%.
& The iodine sold in drug stores is usually not the pure
crystaline form that is desired for producing ammonium
triiodide crystals. To obtain the pure form, it must usually
be acquired by a doctor's prescription, but this can be
expensive. Once again, theft is the means that terrorists
result to.
2.3 PREPARATION OF CHEMICALS
2.31 NITRIC ACID
There are several ways to make this most essential of
all acids for explosives. One method by which it could be made
will be presented. Once again, be reminded that these methods
SHOULD NOT BE CARRIED OUT!!
Materials: Equipment:
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
sodium nitrate or adjustable heat source
potassium nitrate
retort
distilled water
ice bath
concentrated
sulfuric acid stirring rod
collecting flask with stopper
1) Pour 32 milliliters of concentrated sulfuric acid into the
retort.

2) Carefully weigh out 58 grams of sodium nitrate, or 68 grams
of potassium nitrate. and add this to the acid slowly. If it
all does not dissolve, carefully stir the solution with a
glass rod until it does.
3) Place the open end of the retort into the collecting flask,
and place the collecting flask in the ice bath.
4) Begin heating the retort, using low heat. Continue heating
until liquid begins to come out of the end of the retort. The
liquid that forms is nitric acid. Heat until the precipitate
in the bottom of the retort is almost dry, or until no more
nitric acid is forming. CAUTION: If the acid is headed too
strongly, the nitric acid will decompose as soon as it is
formed. This can result in the production of highly flammable
and toxic gasses that may explode. It is a good idea to set
the above apparatus up, and then get away from it.
Potassium nitrate could also be obtained from store-
bought black powder, simply by dissolving black powder in
boiling water and filtering out the sulfur and charcoal. To
obtain 68 g of potassium nitrate, it would be necessary to
dissolve about 90 g of black powder in about one litre of
boiling water. Filter the dissolved solution through filter
paper in a funnel into a jar until the liquid that pours
through is clear. The charcoal and sulfur in black powder are
insoluble in water, and so when the solution of water is
allowed to evaporate, potassium nitrate will be left in the
jar.
2.32 SULFURIC ACID
Sulfuric acid is far too difficult to make outside of a
laboratory or industrial plant. However, it is readily
available in an uncharged car battery. A person wishing to
make sulfuric acid would simply remove the top of a car
battery and pour the acid into a glass container. There would
probably be pieces of lead from the battery in the acid which
would have to be removed, either by boiling or filtration.
The concentration of the sulfuric acid can also be increased
by boiling it; very pure sulfuric acid pours slightly faster
than clean motor oil.
2.33 AMMONIUM NITRATE
Ammonium nitrate is a very powerful but insensitive high-
order explosive. It could be made very easily by pouring
nitric acid into a large flask in an ice bath. Then, by simply
pouring household ammonia into the flask and running away,
ammonium nitrate would be formed. After the materials have
stopped reacting, one would simply have to leave the solution
in a warm place until all of the water and any unneutralized
ammonia or acid have evaporated. There would be a fine powder
formed, which would be ammonium nitrate. It must be kept in an
airtight container, because of its tendency to pick up water
from the air. The crystals formed in the above process would
have to be heated VERY gently to drive off the remaining
water.



3.0 EXPLOSIVE RECIPES
Once again, persons reading this material MUST NEVER
ATTEMPT TO PRODUCE ANY OF THE EXPLOSIVES DESCRIBED HEREIN.
IT IS ILLEGAL AND EXTREMELY DANGEROUS TO ATTEMPT TO DO SO.
LOSS OF LIFE AND/OR LIMB COULD EASILY OCCUR AS A RESULT OF
ATTEMPTING TO PRODUCE EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS.
These recipes are theoretically correct, meaning that an
individual could conceivably produce the materials described.
The methods here are usually scaled-down industrial
procedures.
3.01 EXPLOSIVE THEORY
An explosive is any material that, when ignited by heat
or shock, undergoes rapid decomposition or oxidation. This
process releases energy that is stored in the material in the
form of heat and light, or by breaking down into gaseous
compounds that occupy a much larger volume that the original
piece of material. Because this expansion is very rapid,
large volumes of air are displaced by the expanding gasses.
This expansion occurs at a speed greater than the speed of
sound, and so a sonic boom occurs. This explains the
mechanics behind an explosion. Explosives occur in several
forms: high-order explosives which detonate, low order
explosives, which burn, and primers, which may do both.
High order explosives detonate. A detonation occurs only
in a high order explosive. Detonations are usually incurred
by a shockwave that passes through a block of the high
explosive material. The shockwave breaks apart the molecular
bonds between the atoms of the substance, at a rate
approximately equal to the speed of sound traveling through
that material. In a high explosive, the fuel and oxodizer are
chemically bonded, and the shockwave breaks apart these bonds,
and re-combines the two materials to produce mostly gasses.
T.N.T., ammonium nitrate, and R.D.X. are examples of high
order explosives.
Low order explosives do not detonate; they burn, or
undergo oxidation. when heated, the fuel(s) and oxodizer(s)
combine to produce heat, light, and gaseous products. Some
low order materials burn at about the same speed under
pressure as they do in the open, such as blackpowder. Others,
such as gunpowder, which is correctly called nitrocellulose,
burn much faster and hotter when they are in a confined space,
such as the barrel of a firearm; they usually burn much slower
than blackpowder when they are ignited in unpressurized
conditions. Black powder, nitrocellulose, and flash powder are
good examples of low order explosives.
Primers are peculiarities to the explosive field. Some
of them, such as mercury filminate, will function as a low or
high order explosive. They are usually more sensitive to
friction, heat, or shock, than the high or low explosives.
Most primers perform like a high order explosive, except that
they are much more sensitive. Still others merely burn, but
when they are confined, they burn at a great rate and with a
large expansion of gasses and a shockwave. Primers are usually
used in a small amount to initiate, or cause to decompose, a
high order explosive, as in an artillery shell. But, they are
also frequently used to ignite a low order explosive; the
gunpowder in a bullet is ignited by the detonation of its
primer.
3.1 IMPACT EXPLOSIVES
Impact explosives are often used as primers. Of the ones
discussed here, only mercury fulminate and nitroglycerine are
real explosives; Ammonium triiodide crystals decompose upon
impact, but they release little heat and no light. Impact
explosives are always treated with the greatest care, and even
the stupidest anarchist never stores them near any high or low
explosives.
3.11 AMMONIUM TRIIODIDE CRYSTALS
Ammonium triiodide crystals are foul-smelling purple
colored crystals that decompose under the slightest amount of
heat, friction, or shock, if they are made with the purest
ammonia (ammonium hydroxide) and iodine. Such crystals are
said to detonate when a fly lands on them, or when an ant
walks across them. Household ammonia, however, has enough
impurities, such as soaps and abrasive agents, so that the
crystals will detonate when thrown,crushed, or heated. Upon
detonation, a loud report is heard, and a cloud of purple
iodine gas appears about the detonation site. Whatever the
unfortunate surface that the crystal was detonated upon will
usually be ruined, as some of the iodine in the crystal is
thrown about in a solid form, and iodine is corrosive. It
leaves nasty, ugly, permanent brownish-purple stains on
whatever it contacts. Iodine gas is also bad news, since it
can damage lungs, and it settles to the ground and stains
things there also. Touching iodine leaves brown stains on the
skin that last for about a week, unless they are immediately
and vigorously washed off. While such a compound would have
little use to a serious terrorist, a vandal could utilize them
in damaging property. Or, a terrorist could throw several of
them into a crowd as a distraction, an action which would
possibly injure a few people, but frighten almost anyone,
since a small crystal that not be seen when thrown produces a
rather loud explosion. Ammonium triiodide crystals could be
produced in the following manner:



Materials Equipment
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
iodine crystals funnel and filter paper
paper towels
clear ammonia
(ammonium hydroxide, two throw-away glass jars
for the suicidal)
1) Place about two teaspoons of iodine into one of the glass
jars. The jars must both be throw away because they will
never be clean again.
2) Add enough ammonia to completely cover the iodine.
3) Place the funnel into the other jar, and put the filter
paper in the funnel. The technique for putting filter paper
in a funnel is taught in every basic chemistry lab class: fold
the circular paper in half, so that a semi-circle is formed.
Then, fold it in half again to form a triangle with one curved
side. Pull one thickness of paper out to form a cone, and
place the cone into the funnel.
4) After allowing the iodine to soak in the ammonia for a
while, pour the solution into the paper in the funnel through
the filter paper.
5) While the solution is being filtered, put more ammonia into
the first jar to wash any remaining crystals into the funnel
as soon as it drains.
6) Collect all the purplish crystals without touching the
brown filter paper, and place them on the paper towels to dry
for about an hour. Make sure that they are not too close to
any lights or other sources of heat, as they could well
detonate. While they are still wet, divide the wet material
into about eight chunks.
7) After they dry, gently place the crystals onto a one square
inch piece of duct tape. Cover it with a similar piece, and
gently press the duct tape together around the crystal, making
sure not to press the crystal itself. Finally, cut away most
of the excess duct tape with a pair of scissors, and store the
crystals in a cool dry safe place. They have a shelf life of
about a week, and they should be stored in individual
containers that can be thrown away, since they have a tendency
to slowly decompose, a process which gives off iodine vapors,
which will stain whatever they settle on. One possible way to
increase their shelf life is to store them in airtight
containers. To use them, simply throw them against any
surface or place them where they will be stepped on or
crushed.



3.12 MERCURY FULMINATE
Mercury fulminate is perhaps one of the oldest known
initiating compounds. It can be detonated by either heat or
shock, which would make it of infinite value to a terrorist.
Even the action of dropping a crystal of the fulminate causes
it to explode. A person making this material would probably
use the following procedure:
MATERIALS EQUIPMENT
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
mercury (5 g) glass stirring rod
concentrated nitric 100 ml beaker (2)
acid (35 ml)
adjustable heat source
ethyl alcohol (30 ml)
blue litmus paper
distilled water
funnel and filter paper
1) In one beaker, mix 5 g of mercury with 35 ml of
concentrated nitric acid, using the glass rod.
2) Slowly heat the mixture until the mercury is dissolved,
which is when the solution turns green and boils.
3) Place 30 ml of ethyl alcohol into the second beaker, and
slowly and carefully add all of the contents of the first
beaker to it. Red and/or brown fumes should appear. These
fumes are toxic and flammable.
4) After thirty to forty minutes, the fumes should turn white,
indicating that the reaction is near completion. After ten
more minutes, add 30 ml of the distilled water to the
solution.
5) Carefully filter out the crystals of mercury fulminate from
the liquid solution. Dispose of the solution in a safe place,
as it is corrosive and toxic.
6) Wash the crystals several times in distilled water to
remove as much excess acid as possible. Test the crystals
with the litmus paper until they are neutral. This will be
when the litmus paper stays blue when it touches the wet
crystals.
7) Allow the crystals to dry, and store them in a safe place,
far away from any explosive or flammable material.
This procedure can also be done by volume, if the
available mercury cannot be weighed. Simply use 10 volumes of
nitric acid and 10 volumes of ethanol to every one volume of
mercury.

3.13 NITROGLYCERINE
Nitroglycerine is one of the most sensitive explosives,
if it is not the most sensitive. Although it is possible to
make it safely, it is difficult. Many a young anarchist has
been killed or seriously injured while trying to make the
stuff. When Nobel's factories make it, many people were
killed by the all-to-frequent factory explosions. Usually, as
soon as it is made, it is converted into a safer substance,
such as dynamite. An idiot who attempts to make
nitroglycerine would use the following procedure:
MATERIAL EQUIPMENT
~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
distilled water eye-dropper
table salt 100 ml beaker
sodium bicarbonate 200-300 ml beakers (2)
concentrated nitric ice bath container
acid (13 ml) ( a plastic bucket serves well )
concentrated sulfuric centigrade thermometer
acid (39 ml) blue litmus paper
glycerine
1) Place 150 ml of distilled water into one of the 200-300 ml
beakers.
2) In the other 200-300 ml beaker, place 150 ml of distilled
water and about a spoonful of sodium bicarbonate, and stir
them until the sodium bicarbonate dissolves. Do not put so
much sodium bicarbonate in the water so that some remains
undissolved.
3) Create an ice bath by half filling the ice bath container
with ice, and adding table salt. This will cause the ice to
melt, lowering the overall temperature.
4) Place the 100 ml beaker into the ice bath, and pour the 13
ml of concentrated nitric acid into the 100 ml beaker. Be
sure that the beaker will not spill into the ice bath, and
that the ice bath will not overflow into the beaker when more
materials are added to it. Be sure to have a large enough ice
bath container to add more ice. Bring the temperature of the
acid down to about 20 degrees centigrade or less.
5) When the nitric acid is as cold as stated above, slowly and
carefully add the 39 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid to the
nitric acid. Mix the two acids together, and cool the mixed
acids to 10 degrees centigrade. It is a good idea to start
another ice bath to do this.




6) With the eyedropper, slowly put the glycerine into the
mixed acids, one drop at a time. Hold the thermometer along
the top of the mixture where the mixed acids and glycerine
meet. DO NOT ALLOW THE TEMPERATURE TO GET ABOVE 30 DEGREES
CENTIGRADE; IF THE TEMPERATURE RISES ABOVE THIS TEMPERATURE,
RUN LIKE HELL!!! The glycerine will start to nitrate
immediately, and the temperature will immediately begin to
rise. Add glycerine until there is a thin layer of glycerine
on top of the mixed acids. It is always safest to make any
explosive in small quantities.
7) Stir the mixed acids and glycerine for the first ten
minutes of nitration, adding ice and salt to the ice bath to
keep the temperature of the solution in the 100 ml beaker well
below 30 degrees centigrade. Usually, the nitroglycerine will
form on the top of the mixed acid solution, and the
concentrated sulfuric acid will absorb the water produced by
the reaction.
8) When the reaction is over, and when the nitroglycerine is
well below 30 degrees centigrade, slowly and carefully pour
the solution of nitroglycerine and mixed acid into the
distilled water in the beaker in step 1. The
nitroglycerine should settle to the bottom of the beaker, and
the water-acid solution on top can be poured off and disposed
of. Drain as much of the acid-water solution as possible
without disturbing the nitroglycerine.
9) Carefully remove the nitroglycerine with a clean eye-
dropper, and place it into the beaker in step 2. The sodium
bicarbonate solution will eliminate much of the acid, which
will make the nitroglycerine more stable, and less likely to
explode for no reason, which it can do. Test the
nitroglycerine with the litmus paper until the litmus stays
blue. Repeat this step if necessary, and use new sodium
bicarbonate solutions as in step 2.
10) When the nitroglycerine is as acid-free as possible, store
it in a clean container in a safe place. The best place to
store nitroglycerine is far away from anything living, or from
anything of any value. Nitroglycerine can explode for no
apparent reason, even if it is stored in a secure cool place.
3.14 PICRATES
Although the procedure for the production of picric acid,
or trinitrophenol has not yet been given, its salts are
described first, since they are extremely sensitive, and
detonate on impact. By mixing picric acid with metal
hydroxides, such as sodium or potassium hydroxide, and
evaporating the water, metal picrates can be formed. Simply
obtain picric acid, or produce it, and mix it with a solution
of (preferably) potassium hydroxide, of a mid range molarity.
(about 6-9 M) This material, potassium picrate, is impact-
sensitive, and can be used as an initiator for any type of
high explosive.

3.2 LOW-ORDER EXPLOSIVES
There are many low-order explosives that can be purchased
in gun stores and used in explosive devices. However, it is
possible that a wise wise store owner would not sell these
substances to a suspicious-looking individual. Such an
individual would then be forced to resort to making his own
low-order explosives.
3.21 BLACK POWDER
First made by the Chinese for use in fireworks, black
powder was first used in weapons and explosives in the 12th
century. It is very simple to make, but it is not very
powerful or safe. Only about 50% of black powder is converted
to hot gasses when it is burned; the other half is mostly very
fine burned particles. Black powder has one major problem: it
can be ignited by static electricity. This is very bad, and
it means that the material must be made with wooden or clay
tools. Anyway, a misguided individual could manufacture black
powder at home with the following procedure:
MATERIALS EQUIPMENT
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
potassium clay grinding bowl
nitrate (75 g) and clay grinder
or or
sodium wooden salad bowl
nitrate (75 g) and wooden spoon
sulfur (10 g) plastic bags (3)
charcoal (15 g) 300-500 ml beaker (1)
distilled water coffee pot or heat source
1) Place a small amount of the potassium or sodium nitrate in
the grinding bowl and grind it to a very fine powder. Do this
to all of the potassium or sodium nitrate, and store the
ground powder in one of the plastic bags.
2) Do the same thing to the sulfur and charcoal, storing each
chemical in a separate plastic bag.
3) Place all of the finely ground potassium or sodium nitrate
in the beaker, and add just enough boiling water to the
chemical to get it all wet.
4) Add the contents of the other plastic bags to the wet
potassium or sodium nitrate, and mix them well for several
minutes. Do this until there is no more visible sulfur or
charcoal, or until the mixture is universally black.
5) On a warm sunny day, put the beaker outside in the direct
sunlight. Sunlight is really the best way to dry black
powder, since it is never too hot, but it is hot enough to
evaporate the water.


6) Scrape the black powder out of the beaker, and store it in
a safe container. Plastic is really the safest container,
followed by paper. Never store black powder in a plastic bag,
since plastic bags are prone to generate static electricity.
3.22 NITROCELLULOSE
Nitrocellulose is usually called "gunpowder" or
"guncotton". It is more stable than black powder, and it
produces a much greater volume of hot gas. It also burns much
faster than black powder when it is in a confined space.
Finally, nitrocellulose is fairly easy to make, as outlined by
the following procedure:
MATERIALS EQUIPMENT
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
cotton (cellulose) two (2) 200-300 ml beakers
concentrated funnel and filter paper
nitric acid blue litmus paper
concentrated
sulfuric acid
distilled water
1) Pour 10 cc of concentrated sulfuric acid into the beaker.
Add to this 10 cc of concentrated nitric acid.
2) Immediately add 0.5 gm of cotton, and allow it to soak for
exactly 3 minutes.
3) Remove the nitrocotton, and transfer it to a beaker of
distilled water to wash it in.
4) Allow the material to dry, and then re-wash it.
5) After the cotton is neutral when tested with litmus paper,
it is ready to be dried and stored.
3.23 FUEL-OXODIZER MIXTURES
There are nearly an infinite number of fuel-oxodizer
mixtures that can be produced by a misguided individual in his
own home. Some are very effective and dangerous, while others
are safer and less effective. A list of working fuel-oxodizer
mixtures will be presented, but the exact measurements of each
compound are debatable for maximum effectiveness. A rough
estimate will be given of the percentages of each fuel and
oxodizer:
oxodizer, % by weight fuel, % by weight speed # notes
==============================================================
potassium chlorate 67% sulfur 33% 5 friction/impact
sensitive; unstable
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
potassium chlorate 50% sugar 35% 5 fairly slow
charcoal 15% burning; unstable
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

potassium chlorate 50% sulfur 25% 8 extremely
magnesium or unstable!
aluminum dust 25%
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
potassium chlorate 67% magnesium or 8 unstable
aluminum dust 33%
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
sodium nitrate 65% magnesium dust 30% ? unpredictable
sulfur 5% burn rate
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
potassium permanganate 60% glycerine 40% 4 delay before
ignition depends
upon grain size
WARNING: IGNITES SPONTANEOUSLY WITH GLYCERINE!!!
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
potassium permanganate 67% sulfur 33% 5 unstable
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
potassium permangenate 60% sulfur 20% 5 unstable
magnesium or
aluminum dust 20%
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
potassium permanganate 50% sugar 50% 3 ?
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
potassium nitrate 75% charcoal 15% 7 this is
sulfur 10% black powder!
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
potassium nitrate 60% powdered iron 1 burns very
or magnesium 40% hot
==============================================================
potassium chlorate 75% phosphorus 8 used to make
sesquisulfide 25% strike-
anywhere matches
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
ammonium perchlorate 70% aluminum dust 30% 6 solid fuel
and small amount of for space
iron oxide shuttle
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
potassium perchlorate 67% magnesium or 10 flash powder
(sodium perchlorate) aluminum dust 33%
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
potassium perchlorate 60% sulfur 20% or 8 alternate
(sodium perchlorate) magnesium flash powder
aluminum dust 20%
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
barium nitrate 30% aluminum dust 30% 9 alternate
potassium perchlorate 30% flash powder
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
barium peroxide 90% magnesium dust 5% 10 alternate
aluminum dust 5% flash powder
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
potassium perchlorate 50% sulfur 25% 8 slightly
magnesium or unstable
aluminum dust 25%
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
potassium chlorate 67% red phosphorus 27% 7 very unstable
calcium carbonate 3% sulfur 3% impact sensitive
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
potassium permanganate 50% powdered sugar 25% 7 unstable;
aluminum or ignites if
magnesium dust 25% it gets wet!
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
potassium chlorate 75% charcoal dust 15% 6 unstable
sulfur 10%
==============================================================
NOTE: Mixtures that use substitutions of sodium perchlorate
for potassium perchlorate become moisture-absorbent and less
stable.
The higher the speed number, the faster the fuel-oxodizer
mixture burns AFTER ignition. Also, as a rule, the finer the
powder, the faster the rate of burning.
As one can easily see, there is a wide variety of fuel-
oxodizer mixtures that can be made at home. By altering the
amounts of fuel and oxodizer(s), different burn rates can be
achieved, but this also can change the sensitivity of the
mixture.
3.24 PERCHLORATES
As a rule, any oxidizable material that is treated with
perchloric acid will become a low order explosive. Metals,
however, such as potassium or sodium, become excellent bases
for flash-type powders. Some materials that can be
perchlorated are cotton, paper, and sawdust. To produce
potassium or sodium perchlorate, simply acquire the hydroxide
of that metal, e.g. sodium or potassium hydroxide. It is a
good idea to test the material to be perchlorated with a very
small amount of acid, since some of the materials tend to
react explosively when contacted by the acid. Solutions of
sodium or potassium hydroxide are ideal.
3.3 HIGH-ORDER EXPLOSIVES
High order explosives can be made in the home without too
much difficulty. The main problem is acquiring the nitric
acid to produce the high explosive. Most high explosives
detonate because their molecular structure is made up of some
fuel and usually three or more NO2 ( nitrogen dioxide )
molecules. T.N.T., or Tri-Nitro-Toluene is an excellent
example of such a material. When a shock wave passes through
an molecule of T.N.T., the nitrogen dioxide bond is broken,
and the oxygen combines with the fuel, all in a matter of
microseconds. This accounts for the great power of nitrogen-
based explosives. Remembering that these procedures are NEVER
TO BE CARRIED OUT, several methods of manufacturing high-order
explosives in the home are listed.




3.31 R.D.X.
R.D.X., also called cyclonite, or composition C-1 (when
mixed with plasticisers) is one of the most valuable of all
military explosives. This is because it has more than 150% of
the power of T.N.T., and is much easier to detonate. It
should not be used alone, since it can be set off by a not-too
severe shock. It is less sensitive than mercury fulminate, or
nitroglycerine, but it is still too sensitive to be used
alone. R.D.X. can be made by the surprisingly simple method
outlined hereafter. It is much easier to make in the home
than all other high explosives, with the possible exception of
ammonium nitrate.
MATERIALS EQUIPMENT
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
hexamine 500 ml beaker
or glass stirring rod
methenamine funnel and filter paper
fuel tablets (50 g) ice bath container
concentrated (plastic bucket)
nitric acid (550 ml) centigrade thermometer
distilled water blue litmus paper
table salt
ice
ammonium nitrate
1) Place the beaker in the ice bath, (see section 3.13, steps
3-4) and carefully pour 550 ml of concentrated nitric acid
into the beaker.
2) When the acid has cooled to below 20 degrees centigrade,
add small amounts of the crushed fuel tablets to the beaker.
The temperature will rise, and it must be kept below 30
degrees centigrade, or dire consequences could result. Stir
the mixture.
3) Drop the temperature below zero degrees centigrade, either
by adding more ice and salt to the old ice bath, or by
creating a new ice bath. Or, ammonium nitrate could be added
to the old ice bath, since it becomes cold when it is put in
water. Continue stirring the mixture, keeping the temperature
below zero degrees centigrade for at least twenty minutes.
4) Pour the mixture into a litre of crushed ice. Shake and
stir the mixture, and allow it to melt. Once it has melted,
filter out the crystals, and dispose of the corrosive liquid.
5) Place the crystals into one half litre of boiling distilled
water. Filter the crystals, and test them with the blue
litmus paper. Repeat steps 4 and 5 until the litmus paper
remains blue. This will make the crystals more stable and
safe.
6) Store the crystals wet until ready for use. Allow them to
dry completely before using them. R.D.X. is not stable enough
to use alone as an explosive.

7) Composition C-1 can be made by mixing 88.3% R.D.X. (by
weight) with 11.1% mineral oil, and 0.6% lecithin. Kneed these
material together in a plastic bag. This is a good way to
desensitize the explosive.
8) H.M.X. is a mixture of T.N.T. and R.D.X.; the ratio is
50/50, by weight. It is not as sensitive, and is almost as
powerful as straight R.D.X.
9) By adding ammonium nitrate to the crystals of R.D.X. after
step 5, it should be possible to desensitize the R.D.X. and
increase its power, since ammonium nitrate is very insensitive
and powerful. Soduim or potassium nitrate could also be added;
a small quantity is sufficient to stabilize the R.D.X.
10) R.D.X. detonates at a rate of 8550 meters/second when it
is compressed to a density of 1.55 g/cubic cm.
3.32 AMMONIUM NITRATE
Ammonium nitrate could be made by a terrorist according
to the hap-hazard method in section 2.33, or it could be
stolen from a construction site, since it is usually used in
blasting, because it is very stable and insensitive to shock
and heat. A terrorist could also buy several Instant Cold-
Paks from a drug store or medical supply store. The major
disadvantage with ammonium nitrate, from a terrorist's point
of view, would be detonating it. A rather powerful priming
charge must be used, and usually with a booster charge. The
diagram below will explain.
_________________________________________
| | |
________| | |
| | T.N.T.| ammonium nitrate |
|primer |booster| |
|_______| | |
| | |
|_______|_______________________________|
The primer explodes, detonating the T.N.T., which
detonates, sending a tremendous shockwave through the
ammonium nitrate, detonating it.
3.33 ANFOS
ANFO is an acronym for Ammonium Nitrate - Fuel Oil
Solution. An ANFO solves the only other major problem with
ammonium nitrate: its tendency to pick up water vapor from the
air. This results in the explosive failing to detonate when
such an attempt is made. This is rectified by mixing 94% (by
weight) ammonium nitrate with 6% fuel oil, or kerosene. The
kerosene keeps the ammonium nitrate from absorbing moisture
from the air. An ANFO also requires a large shockwave to set
it off.


3.34 T.N.T.
T.N.T., or Tri-Nitro-Toluene, is perhaps the second
oldest known high explosive. Dynamite, of course, was the
first. It is certainly the best known high explosive, since it
has been popularized by early morning cartoons. It is the
standard for comparing other explosives to, since it is the
most well known. In industry, a T.N.T. is made by a three step
nitration process that is designed to conserve the nitric and
sulfuric acids which are used to make the product. A
terrorist, however, would probably optain it for the less
economical one step method. The one step process is performed
by treating toluene with very strong (fuming) sulfuric acid.
Then, the sulfated toluene is treated with very strong
(fuming) nitric acid in an ice bath. Cold water is added the
solution, and it is filtered.
3.35 POTASSIUM CHLORATE
Potassium chlorate itself cannot be made in the home, but
it can be obtained from labs. If potassium chlorate is mixed
with a small amount of vaseline, or other petroleum jelly, and
a shockwave is passed through it, the material will detonate
with slightly more power than black powder. It must, however,
be confined to detonate it in this manner. The procedure for
making such an explosive is outlined below:
MATERIALS EQUIPMENT
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
potassium chlorate zip-lock plastic bag
(9 parts, by volume) clay grinding bowl
petroleum jelly or
(vaseline) wooden bowl and wooden spoon
(1 part, by volume)
1) Grind the potassium chlorate in the grinding bowl
carefully and slowly, until the potassium chlorate is a very
fine powder. The finer that it is powdered, the faster
(better) it will detonate.
2) Place the powder into the plastic bag. Put the petroleum
jelly into the plastic bag, getting as little on the sides of
the bag as possible, i.e. put the vaseline on the potassium
chlorate powder.
3) Close the bag, and kneed the materials together until none
of the potassium chlorate is dry powder that does not stick to
the main glob. If necessary, add a bit more petroleum jelly
to the bag.
4) The material must me used within 24 hours, or the mixture
will react to greatly reduce the effectiveness of the
explosive. This reaction, however, is harmless, and releases
no heat or dangerous products.


3.36 DYNAMITE
The name dynamite comes from the Greek word "dynamis",
meaning power. Dynamite was invented by Nobel shortly after he
made nitroglycerine. It was made because nitroglycerine was so
dangerously sensitive to shock. A misguided individual with
some sanity would, after making nitroglycerine (an insane act)
would immediately convert it to dynamite. This can be done by
adding various materials to the nitroglycerine, such as
sawdust. The sawdust holds a large weight of nitroglycerine
per volume. Other materials, such as ammonium nitrate could be
added, and they would tend to desensitize the explosive, and
increase the power. But even these nitroglycerine compounds
are not really safe.
3.37 NITROSTARCH EXPLOSIVES
Nitrostarch explosives are simple to make, and are fairly
powerful. All that need be done is treat various starches
with a mixture of concentrated nitric and sulfuric acids. 10
ml of concentrated sulfuric acid is added to 10 ml of
concentrated nitric acid. To this mixture is added 0.5 grams
of starch. Cold water is added, and the apparently unchanged
nitrostarch is filtered out. Nitrostarch explosives are of
slightly lower power than T.N.T., but they are more readily
detonated.
3.38 PICRIC ACID
Picric acid, also known as Tri-Nitro-Phenol, or T.N.P.,
is a military explosive that is most often used as a booster
charge to set off another less sensitive explosive, such as
T.N.T. It another explosive that is fairly simple to make,
assuming that one can acquire the concentrated sulfuric and
nitric acids. Its procedure for manufacture is given in many
college chemistry lab manuals, and is easy to follow. The
main problem with picric acid is its tendency to form
dangerously sensitive and unstable picrate salts, such as
potassium picrate. For this reason, it is usually made into a
safer form, such as ammonium picrate, also called explosive D.
A social deviant would probably use a formula similar to the
one presented here to make picric acid.
MATERIALS EQUIPMENT
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
phenol (9.5 g) 500 ml flask
concentrated adjustable heat source
sulfuric acid (12.5 ml) 1000 ml beaker
concentrated nitric acid (38 ml) or other container
distilled water suitable for boiling in
filter paper and funnel
glass stirring rod
1) Place 9.5 grams of phenol into the 500 ml flask, and
carefully add 12.5 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid and stir
the mixture.

2) Put 400 ml of tap water into the 1000 ml beaker or boiling
container and bring the water to a gentle boil.
3) After warming the 500 ml flask under hot tap water, place
it in the boiling water, and continue to stir the mixture of
phenol and acid for about thirty minutes. After thirty
minutes, take the flask out, and allow it to cool for about
five minutes.
4) Pour out the boiling water used above, and after allowing
the container to cool, use it to create an ice bath, similar
to the one used in section 3.13, steps 3-4. Place the 500 ml
flask with the mixed acid an phenol in the ice bath. Add
38 ml of concentrated nitric acid in small amounts, stirring
the mixture constantly. A vigorous but "harmless" reaction
should occur. When the mixture stops reacting vigorously,
take the flask out of the ice bath.
5) Warm the ice bath container, if it is glass, and then begin
boiling more tap water. Place the flask containing the
mixture in the boiling water, and heat it in the boiling water
for 1.5 to 2 hours.
6) Add 100 ml of cold distilled water to the solution, and
chill it in an ice bath until it is cold.
7) Filter out the yellowish-white picric acid crystals by
pouring the solution through the filter paper in the funnel.
Collect the liquid and dispose of it in a safe place, since it
is corrosive.
8) Wash out the 500 ml flask with distilled water, and put the
contents of the filter paper in the flask. Add 300 ml of
water, and shake vigorously.
9) Re-filter the crystals, and allow them to dry.
10) Store the crystals in a safe place in a glass container,
since they will react with metal containers to produce
picrates that could explode spontaneously.
3.39 AMMONIUM PICRATE
Ammonium picrate, also called Explosive D, is another
safety explosive. It requires a substantial shock to cause it
to detonate, slightly less than that required to detonate
ammonium nitrate. It is much safer than picric acid, since it
has little tendency to form hazardous unstable salts when
placed in metal containers. It is simple to make from picric
acid and clear household ammonia. All that need be done is put
the picric acid crystals into a glass container and dissolve
them in a great quantity of hot water. Add clear household
ammonia in excess, and allow the excess ammonia to evaporate.
The powder remaining should be ammonium picrate.


3.40 NITROGEN TRICHLORIDE
Nitrogen trichloride, also known as chloride of azode, is
an oily yellow liquid. It explodes violently when it is
heated above 60 degrees celsius, or when it comes in contact
with an open flame or spark. It is fairly simple to produce.
1) In a beaker, dissolve about 5 teaspoons of ammonium
nitrate in water. Do not put so much ammonium nitrate into
the solution that some of it remains undissolved in the bottom
of the beaker.
2) Collect a quantity of chlorine gas in a second beaker by
mixing hydrochloric acid with potassium permanganate in a
large flask with a stopper and glass pipe.
3) Place the beaker containing the chlorine gas upside down
on top of the beaker containing the ammonium nitrate solution,
and tape the beakers together. Gently heat the bottom beaker.
When this is done, oily yellow droplets will begin to form on
the surface of the solution, and sink down to the bottom. At
this time, remove the heat source immediately.
Alternately, the chlorine can be bubbled through the
ammonium nitrate solution, rather than collecting the gas in a
beaker, but this requires timing and a stand to hold the
beaker and test tube.
The chlorine gas can also be mixed with anhydrous ammonia
gas, by gently heating a flask filled with clear household
ammonia. Place the glass tubes from the chlorine-generating
flask and the tube from the ammonia-generating flask in
another flask that contains water.
4) Collect the yellow droplets with an eyedropper, and use
them immediately, since nitrogen trichloride decomposes in 24
hours.
3.41 LEAD AZIDE
Lead Azide is a material that is often used as a booster
charge for other explosive, but it does well enough on its own
as a fairly sensitive explosive. It does not detonate too
easily by percussion or impact, but it is easily detonated by
heat from an igniter wire, or a blasting cap. It is simple to
produce, assuming that the necessary chemicals can be
procured.
By dissolving sodium azide and lead acetate in water in
separate beakers, the two materials are put into an aqueous
state. Mix the two beakers together, and apply a gentle heat.
Add an excess of the lead acetate solution, until no reaction
occurs, and the precipitate on the bottom of the beaker stops
forming. Filter off the solution, and wash the precipitate in
hot water. The precipitate is lead azide, and it must be
stored wet for safety. If lead acetate cannot be found, simply
acquire acetic acid, and put lead metal in it. Black powder
bullets work well for this purpose.
3.5 OTHER "EXPLOSIVES"
The remaining section covers the other types of materials
that can be used to destroy property by fire. Although none
of the materials presented here are explosives, they still
produce explosive-style results.
3.51 THERMIT
Thermit is a fuel-oxodizer mixture that is used to
generate tremendous amounts of heat. It was not presented in
section 3.23 because it does not react nearly as readily. It
is a mixture of iron oxide and aluminum, both finely powdered.
When it is ignited, the aluminum burns, and extracts the
oxygen from the iron oxide. This is really two very exothermic
reactions that produce a combined temperature of about 2200
degrees C. This is half the heat produced by an atomic weapon.
It is difficult to ignite, however, but when it is ignited, it
is one of the most effective firestarters around.
MATERIALS
~~~~~~~~~
powdered aluminum (10 g)
powdered iron oxide (10 g)
1) There is no special procedure or equipment required to make
thermit. Simply mix the two powders together, and try to make
the mixture as homogenous as possible. The ratio of iron
oxide to aluminum is 50% / 50% by weight, and be made in
greater or lesser amounts.
2) Ignition of thermite can be accomplished by adding a small
amount of potassium chlorate to the thermit, and pouring a few
drops of sulfuric acid on it. This method and others will be
discussed later in section 4.33. The other method of igniting
thermit is with a magnesium strip. Finally, by using common
sparkler-type fireworks placed in the thermit, the mixture
can be ignited.
3.52 MOLOTOV COCKTAILS
First used by Russians against German tanks, the Molotov
cocktail is now exclusively used by terrorists worldwide. They
are extremely simple to make, and can produce devastating
results. By taking any highly flammable material, such as
gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, ethyl or methyl alcohol,
lighter fluid, turpentine, or any mixture of the above, and
putting it into a large glass bottle, anyone can make an
effective firebomb. After putting the flammable liquid in the
bottle, simply put a piece of cloth that is soaked in the
liquid in the top of the bottle so that it fits tightly. Then,
wrap some of the cloth around the neck and tie it, but be sure
to leave a few inches of lose cloth to light.
Light the exposed cloth, and throw the bottle. If the burning
cloth does not go out, and if the bottle breaks on impact, the
contents of the bottle will spatter over a large area near the
site of impact, and burst into flame.
Flammable mixtures such as kerosene and motor oil should be
mixed with a more volatile and flammable liquid, such as
gasoline, to insure ignition. A mixture such as tar or grease
and gasoline will stick to the surface that it strikes, and
burn hotter, and be more difficult to extinguish. A mixture
such as this must be shaken well before it is lit and thrown
3.53 CHEMICAL FIRE BOTTLE
The chemical fire bottle is really an advanced molotov
cocktail. Rather than using the burning cloth to ignite the
flammable liquid, which has at best a fair chance of igniting
the liquid, the chemical fire bottle utilizes the very hot and
violent reaction between sulfuric acid and potassium chlorate.
When the container breaks, the sulfuric acid in the mixture of
gasoline sprays onto the paper soaked in potassium chlorate
and sugar. The paper, when struck by the acid, instantly
bursts into a white flame, igniting the gasoline. The chance
of failure to ignite the gasoline is less than 2%, and can be
reduced to 0%, if there is enough potassium chlorate and sugar
to spare.
MATERIALS EQUIPMENT
~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~
potassium chlorate glass bottle
(2 teaspoons) (12 oz.)
sugar (2 teaspoons) cap for bottle,
concentrated with plastic inside
sulfuric acid (4 oz.) cooking pan with raised
gasoline (8 oz.) edges
paper towels
glass or plastic cup
and spoon
1) Test the cap of the bottle with a few drops of sulfuric
acid to make sure that the acid will not eat away the bottle
cap during storage. If the acid eats through it in 24 hours,
a new top must be found and tested, until a cap that the acid
does not eat through is found. A glass top is excellent.
2) Carefully pour 8 oz. of gasoline into the glass bottle.
3) Carefully pour 4 oz. of concentrated sulfuric acid into the
glass bottle. Wipe up any spills of acid on the sides of the
bottle, and screw the cap on the bottle. Wash the bottle's
outside with plenty of water. Set it aside to dry.
4) Put about two teaspoons of potassium chlorate and about two
teaspoons of sugar into the glass or plastic cup. Add
about 1/2 cup of boiling water, or enough to dissolve all
of the potassium chlorate and sugar.
5) Place a sheet of paper towel in the cooking pan with raised
edges. Fold the paper towel in half, and pour the solution of
dissolved potassium chlorate and sugar on it until it is
thoroughly wet. Allow the towel to dry.

6) When it is dry, put some glue on the outside of the glass
bottle containing the gasoline and sulfuric acid mixture.
Wrap the paper towel around the bottle, making sure that it
sticks to it in all places. Store the bottle in a place where
it will not be broken or tipped over.
7) When finished, the solution in the bottle should appear as
two distinct liquids, a dark brownish-red solution on the
bottom, and a clear solution on top. The two solutions will
not mix. To use the chemical fire bottle, simply throw it at
any hard surface.
8) NEVER OPEN THE BOTTLE, SINCE SOME SULFURIC ACID MIGHT BE ON
THE CAP, WHICH COULD TRICKLE DOWN THE SIDE OF THE BOTTLE AND
IGNITE THE POTASSIUM CHLORATE, CAUSING A FIRE AND/OR
EXPLOSION.
9) To test the device, tear a small piece of the paper towel
off the bottle, and put a few drops of sulfuric acid on it.
The paper towel should immediately burst into a white flame.
3.54 BOTTLED GAS EXPLOSIVES
Bottled gas, such as butane for refilling lighters,
propane for propane stoves or for bunsen burners, can be used
to produce a powerful explosion. To make such a device, all
that a simple-minded anarchist would have to do would be to
take his container of bottled gas and place it above a can of
Sterno or other gelatinized fuel, and light the fuel and run.
Depending on the fuel used, and on the thickness of the fuel
container, the liquid gas will boil and expand to the point of
bursting the container in about five minutes. In theory, the
gas would immediately be ignited by the burning gelatinized
fuel, producing a large fireball and explosion. Unfortunately,
the bursting of the bottled gas container often puts out the
fuel, thus preventing the expanding gas from igniting. By
using a metal bucket half filled with gasoline, however, the
chances of ignition are better, since the gasoline is less
likely to be extinguished. Placing the canister of bottled
gas on a bed of burning charcoal soaked in gasoline would
probably be the most effective way of securing ignition of the
expanding gas, since although the bursting of the gas
container may blow out the flame of the gasoline, the burning
charcoal should immediately re-ignite it. Nitrous oxide,
hydrogen, propane, acetylene, or any other flammable gas will
do nicely.
4.0 USING EXPLOSIVES
Once a terrorist has made his explosives, the next
logical step is to apply them. Explosives have a wide range of
uses, from harassment, to vandalism, to murder. NONE OF THE
IDEAS PRESENTED HERE ARE EVER TO BE CARRIED OUT, EITHER IN
PART OR IN FULL! DOING SO CAN LEAD TO PROSECUTION, FINES, AND
IMPRISONMENT! The first step that a person that would use
explosive would take would be to determine how big an
explosive device would be needed to do whatever had to be
done.
Then, he would have to decide what to make his bomb with. He
would also have to decide on how he wanted to detonate the
device, and determine where the best placement for it would
be. Then, it would be necessary to see if the device could be
put where he wanted it without it being discovered or moved.
Finally, he would actually have to sit down and build his
explosive device. These are some of the topics covered in the
next section.
4.1 SAFETY
There is no such thing as a "safe" explosive device. One
can only speak in terms of relative safety, or less unsafe.
4.2 IGNITION DEVICES
There are many ways to ignite explosive devices. There
is the classic "light the fuse, throw the bomb, and run"
approach, and there are sensitive mercury switches, and many
things in between. Generally, electrical detonation systems
are safer than fuses, but there are times when fuses are more
appropriate than electrical systems; it is difficult to carry
an electrical detonation system into a stadium, for instance,
without being caught. A device with a fuse or impact
detonating fuse would be easier to hide.
4.21 FUSE IGNITION
The oldest form of explosive ignition, fuses are perhaps
the favorite type of simple ignition system. By simply
placing a piece of waterproof fuse in a device, one can have
almost guaranteed ignition. Modern waterproof fuse is
extremely reliable, burning at a rate of about 2.5 seconds to
the inch. It is available as model rocketry fuse in most
hobby shops, and costs about $3.00 for a nine-foot length.
Fuse is a popular ignition system for pipe bombers because of
its simplicity. All that need be done is light it with a
match or lighter. Of course, if the Army had fuses like this,
then the grenade, which uses fuse ignition, would be very
impracticle. If a grenade ignition system can be acquired, by
all means, it is the most effective. But, since such things
do not just float around, the next best thing is to prepare a
fuse system which does not require the use of a match or
lighter, but still retains its simplicity. One such method is
described below:
MATERIALS
_________
strike-on-cover type matches
electrical tape or duct tape
waterproof fuse

1) To determine the burn rate of a particular type of fuse,
simply measure a 6 inch or longer piece of fuse and ignite it.
With a stopwatch, press the start button the at the instant
when the fuse lights, and stop the watch when the fuse reaches
its end. Divide the time of burn by the length of fuse, and
you have the burn rate of the fuse, in seconds per inch.
This will be shown below:
Suppose an eight inch piece of fuse is burned, and its
complete time of combustion is 20 seconds.
20 seconds
~~~~~~~~~~ = 2.5 seconds per inch.
8 inches
If a delay of 10 seconds was desired with this fuse,
divide the desired time by the number of seconds per inch:
10 seconds
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ = 4 inches
2.5 seconds / inch
NOTE: THE LENGTH OF FUSE HERE MEANS LENGTH OF FUSE TO THE
POWDER. SOME FUSE, AT LEAST AN INCH, SHOULD BE INSIDE THE
DEVICE.

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