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English topics. Английские сочинения для учащихся школ и поступающих в ВУЗы.


 

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English Topics (топики по английскому языку) - это законченные сообщения, которые можно взять за основу и дорабатывать по желанию учащихся и в соответствии с требованиями учителей в течении всего учебного года.
Представленные на этом сайте топики по английскому языку (English Topics) изучаются в 5-11 классах общеобразовательной школы, и выносятся на устные школьные экзамены и вступительные экзамены в вуз. Все топики соответствуют требованиям нового государственного образовательного стандарта по английскому языку. Благодаря тематическому каталогу, вы сможете быстро найти интересущий вас текст.
Английские сочинения для школьников и абитуриентов
Английские сочинения - это законченные сообщения, которые можно взять за основу и дорабатывать по желанию учащихся и в соответствии с требованиями учителей в течении всего учебного года.
Представленные на этом сайте английские сочинения изучаются в 5-11 классах общеобразовательной школы, и выносятся на устные школьные экзамены и вступительные экзамены в вуз. Все сочинения соответствуют требованиям нового государственного образовательного стандарта по английскому языку. Благодаря тематическому каталогу, вы сможете быстро найти интересующий вас текст.
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
1. Моя биография

1. About Myself / Обо мне (1, 2)
2. My Family / Моя семья (1, 2)
3. My Flat / Моя квартира (1, 2)
4. My Friends / Мои друзья
5. My School / Моя школа (1, 2, 3)
6. My Day / Мой обычный день
7. My Hobbies and Pastime / Мое хобби и времяпровождение
8. My Favourite Holidays and Celebrations / Мои любимые праздники
9. My Favourite Writer / Мой любимый писатель (1, 2)
10. My Biography / Моя биография
11. My Working Day at School / Учебный день
12. My Day Off / Выходной день
13. Hobbies / Увлечения
14. My Household Chores / Помощь по дому
15. My Room / Моя комната
16. My Best Friend / Мой лучший друг
17. My Girlfriend / Моя подруга
18. My Future Career / Моя будущая профессия
19. Introducing Yourself / Моя визитная карточка
20. Curriculum Vitae / Резюме

2. Россия - мой дом
1. My Country / Моя страна
2. Moscow / Москва (1, 2)
3. Yaroslavl / Ярославль
4. Russian Holidays and Traditions / Праздники и традиции России
5. Education in Russia / Образование в России (1, 2)
6. Russian Sports / Спорт в России
7. Russia / Россия
8. Russia - a Market-oriented Economy / Россия - страна с рыночной экономикой
9. Russia's Foreign Policy / Внешняя политика России
10. Saint Petersburg / Санкт-Петербург
3. Выдающиеся люди России

1. Mikhail Lomonosov / Михаил Ломоносов (1, 2)
2. Alexander Pushkin / Алесандр Пушкин
3. Yuri Gagarin / Юрий Гагарин
4. Evgenij Pluschenko / Евгений Плющенко
4. Англоговорящие страны
1. Great Britain / Великобритания (1, 2, 3)
2. Oxford / Оксфорд
3. Stratford-upon-Avon / Стратфорд на Эйвон
4. British Holidays and Traditions / Праздники и традиции Великобритании
5. Education in Britain / Образование в Великобритании
6. British Sports / Спорт в Великобритании
7. American Holidays and Traditions / Праздники и традиции Америки
8. Education in the USA / Образование в США
9. American Sports / Спорт в США
10. Canada / Канада
11. Australia / Австралия
12. New Zealand / Новая Зеландия
13. London / Лондон (1, 2, 3)
14. The Weather in UK / Погода в Великобритании
15. Some Outstanding Places of Great Britain / Достопримечательности Великобритании
16. English Schools / Школы Великобритании
17. American Schools / Школы в Америке
18. The United States of America / Соедененные Штаты Америки (1, 2)
19. Washington. D. С. / Вашингтон

5. Выдающиеся люди Великобритании
1. William Shakespeare / Уильям Шекспир
2. Alexander Bell / Александр Бэлл
3. Robert Burns / Роберт Бернс
4. Charles Dickens / Чарльз Диккенс
5. Princess Diana / Принцесса Диана
6. Выдающиеся люди Америки
1. Albert Einstein / Альберт Эйнштейн
2. Ernest Hemingway / Эрнест Хемингуэй
3. Martin Luther King / Мартин Лютер Кинг
4. Madonna / Мадонна
7. Мир вокруг меня
1. Choosing a Career / Выбор профессии
2. Doing Sport and Keeping Fit / Занятия спортом и здоровый образ жизни
3. Learning Foreign Languages / Изучение иностранных языков (1, 2)
4. Travelling / Путешествие (1, 2)
5. Environmental Problems / Проюлемы окружающей среды
6. Mass Media / Средства массовой информации
7. Arts / Искусство
8. Music / Музыка
9. Museums and Art Galleries / Музеи и художественные галереи
10. Books / Книги
11. Youth Problems / Проблемы молодежи
12. Shopping / Поход по магазинам (1, 2)
13. Wars and Peace / Войны и мир
14. Sport in Our Life / Спорт в нашей жизни
15. Learning Languages / Почему мы учим иностранные языки
16. Books in Our Life / Книги в нашей жизни
17. Newspapers and Magazines / Газеты и журналы
18. Television / Телевидение
19. The Theatre / Театр
20. Cinema / Кино
21. Seasons / Поры года
22. Environmental Protection / Защита окружающей среды
23. Meals and Cooking / Еда и ее приготовление
24. Our Health / Наше здоровье
25. Education / Образование



1. Моя биография
About Myself (1) (обо мне)
My name is Pavel, my surname is Sokolov. I am fourteen years old. I was born on the 26-th of August, 1994. I am Russian. I was born in Vladimir. I like my native town very much. When I was a child, I went to a kindergarten. It was a time full of joy and games. Moreover I learnt how to draw, to cut out different animals of paper, to sing and to dance there. I got the first experience of friendship in the kindergarten.
At the age of 6 I went to school. Most of all I liked Math at my primary school. When I was eleven my parents moved to Moscow. We have lived in this city for 3 years already. My family is not very big: I have got a mother, a father and an elder sister.
I am a pupil. I study in the 9th form. I like studying. My favourite school subjects are Math, English and Physics. I haven't decided yet whom I want to be. My future profession will be probably connected with Science. I enjoy reading scientific magazines.
My teachers and parents say that I am hard-working and clever. I don't really think so. I try to be more organized and disciplined, but quite often I prefer to play football with my friends than to study. I adore football.
Also my hobby is music. My favourite music genre is rock music. I have a guitar and I learn to play the guitar with my daddy. I can say that I succeeded a bit and can play about 10 melodies. Sometimes I go to rock concerts with my daddy and I really enjoy it.
==========================================
About Myself (2)
My name is ... I am seventeen (sixteen, eighteen). I live in Moscow (Samara, Novgorod, Sochi...). My address is ... My telephone number is... I am tall (not very tall, short, middle-sized). I am thin (not very thin, rather fat). My face is round (square, oval). I have a fair (dark) complexion. My forehead is narrow (broad) and low (high). I have a straight (turned up, crooked, aquiline) nose and a protruding (round) chin. My eyebrows are bushy (penciled), my eyelashes are thick (thin) and long (short). I have large (small) blue (hazel, black, gray) eyes. My hair is black (fair, dark, blond, chestnut), straight (curly) and long (short, not very long). I have just left school and now I am going to enter the University (Institute). I am going to be a teacher (a lawyer). I like my future profession and I am going to do my best to become a good specialist. I live with my family. It is large (small, not very large) and very good. We love each other very much and always try to help each other and to spend as much time together as we can. I have a lot of friends too. I am fond of reading and playing computer games. My favorite sport is football (swimming, tennis, hockey). My friends and I often get together to play different games, to go for a walk or to the disco or simply to talk.
My Family (1)
I want to tell you about my family. It is not very big. It consists of four members. I have got mother, a father and a brother.
My mother's name is Maria. She is 40. She is a financial worker. She works at Baltiyskij Bank. My mother is very clever and she is a very good worker. Her colleagues appreciate her very much. My mother likes reading books and magazines and she knows a lot of interesting things. My mother is my friend who is always ready to help me in difficult situations.
My father's name is Dmitrij and he is 41 years old. He is an architect. He works for a construction company. He is very good at Maths and Physics. He draws schemes and plans of buildings. My father's hobby is sport. He plays tennis at the week-ends and goes to gym. I want to be as strong as my father.
My elder brother Alexei is 21. He is a student already and he studies in Saint-Petersburg State University. He is in his fourth year. He is going to be a programmist. Most of his time he spends at his computer. I like my brother but I don't want to look like him. I prefer to spend my free time outdoors. And he very seldom goes out with me and daddy.
My grandparents live in the country. Every summer we go there for a couple of weeks. I like my grandparents, their village and their animals. My grandmother Olga is 63. She bakes wonderful cakes. My grandfather is 66. In the country I usually swim and sunbathe with my friends. I have lots of friends there who came to their grandparents like me. We spend all the days together. My parents usually go to the forest and pick up berries and mushrooms. We also help our grandmother and grandfather to feed their animals.
I love my family. We are very friendly and happy to live together.
=============================================
My Family (2)
Our family is large (small, not very large). We are the family of seven (two, three, four, five, six): my mother, my father, my grandmother, my grandfather, my sister, my brother and I. My mother's name is ... She is ... years old. She is a teacher (a doctor, a worker, an engineer). She is a very nice, kind and clever woman. My father's name is ... He is ... years old. He is a worker (a teacher, an engineer, a doctor, a businessman). He is rather tall and strong. He is a man of strong character - and all of us love him very much. My grandmother's name is ... She is ... years old. She does not work now, she is a pensioner, but she has a lot of work to do about the house. All of us try to help her. My grandfather's name is... He is... years old. He is a pensioner too. My brother and sister are students (pupils). Their names are ... They are older (younger) than me. We are a very good family. We love each other very much. In the evenings, when all the members of our family get together after work and study, we like to watch TV, to read books and newspapers, to talk about different things and to discuss all our problems together. When the weather is good we sometimes go for a walk. We have a small house in the country with a garden and a kitchen garden. There is much work there and on weekends we go there and work and have rest all together.

My Flat [flxt](1) (моя квартира)
My family and I live in Saint-Petersurg, in Moscow Аvenue. We live on the fourth floor of a brick block of flats. Our house is old. It was built in the 19th century. Our flat is quite big. There are two bedrooms, a living-room, a kitchen, a bathroom and a toilet.
Our living-room is not very big, but cozy. It is light, because there is a big window in it and the ceiling is very high. This room is the one where we gather together in the evening. We also invite our guests to this room and celebrate our family holidays there. There is a big bookcase on the right of the door, a flat TV-set on the right and two nice chairs in front of it. There is also a sofa by the window. In the middle of the room there is a round coffee-table.
I have a sister, so we have one room. It is bigger than the others, but I sometimes think that it is too small for the two of us. We have very different characters and habits and quite often argue because of the posters on the walls and other things. There is a wall unit, two tables, a big window and two beds in our room. We have a TV-set with a DVD-player in our room too.
My parents' bedroom is very cozy. The colour of the walls and curtains are tender and match to each other. There is a big bed in the middle, a large wardrobe for clothes, a bedside table, a chest of drawers and a stereo.
Our kitchen is very nice. The furniture is light brown and the table is big and round. There is a microwave oven, a fridge and an oven there. We usually have breakfast and supper in the kitchen.
Our bathroom is quite small but very bright and cozy. We have a bath, a washing machine and some bathroom shelves there.
There is a big hall in our flat. When guests come we dance in the hall.
I like my apartment very much.
============================================
My Flat (2)
We have a nice flat in a new block of flats. Our flat is on the fifth floor of a nine-storied building. It has all modern conveniences: central heating, running hot and cold water, electricity, gas, a lift and a chute to carry rubbish down. We have a three-room flat, which consists of a living room, a bedroom, a study (which is also my room), a kitchen, a bathroom and a toilet. There are also two closets in our flat. Our flat has two balconies. The living room is the largest and most comfortable one in the flat. In the middle of the room we have a square dinner table with six chairs round it. To the left of the dinner table there is a wall-unit, which has several sections: a sideboard, a wardrobe and some shelves. At the opposite wall there is a piano and a piano stool before it. To the right there is a little table with color TV set on it. Opposite the TV set there are two cozy armchairs. A divan-bed and a standard lamp are in the left-hand corner. In front of the armchairs there is a small round table for newspapers and magazines. There is a thick carpet on the floor. Two watercolors hang on the wall above the divan-bed. In the evening we usually draw the curtains across the windows, and a red lampshade gives a warm color to the room. The bedroom is smaller than the living room and not so light as there is only one window in it. In this room there are two beds, two dressing tables and a wardrobe. In the corner of the bedroom there is a small color TV set. On the dressing table there is an alarm clock and small lamp with green lampshade. Our study is the smallest room in the flat, but in spite of it, it is very cozy. There isn't much furniture in it, but there are a lot of shelves full of books. It has a writing table, an armchair and a bookcase too. A small round table with cassette-recorder is standing in the right-hand corner of the study. Besides, there is a small sofa near the wall opposite the bookcase. This room was my father's study, but as I grew older, it has become my room. And in my opinion it is the best room in our flat. My friends used to come to my place to have a chat or to play chess in the evening, and they consider my room to be very comfortable. I share their opinion.
My Friends
I think that friendship is one of the most precious things in our life. Friends help us to enjoy our life and to overcome hardships. I don't have lots of friends, but my friends are people whom do I trust and whom I really love. My best friend is my classmate Nikita. He is fourteen. He is a tall boy with an oval face and green eyes. His hair is short and dark brown. Nikita lives not far from my house. We usually go to school, play computer games and go for a walk together. I like spending my time with Nikita because we understand each other very well. We have lots of similar interests.
Nikita is fond of sports like me. His favourite winter sport is skiing. At weekends we go to a nearby park and ski together. In summer we cycle and play football in the yard.
We both like the same music and that really unites us. We discuss our favourite music bands and their works every day on the way home.
I have other friends, too. Dima is not my classmate, he is older. He studies in the 10-th form. He plays the guitar very well and writes songs himself. He also has a huge collection of CD-s. I and Nikita like to visit him and to listen to his songs. Moreover sometimes he helps us with our homework.
I think that my friends are very cool and I am happy to have them.
My School (1)
I want to tell you about my school. It's a school № 146 in Saint-Petersburg. My school is big: it has four floors. On the ground floor there is a gym, a canteen, a medical room, a school museum and a library. We usually have lunch in the canteen.
Our gym is very up-to-date. It's huge and bright. School sports classes and competitions take place there.
The school library is rather big. It has a lot of modern books. Pupils get textbooks for free in the library.
The first floor is for primary school pupils. There are several big classrooms and one with games and toys. After school pupils can stay at school, play games and do their homework there until their parents come to take them home.
On the second floor of my school you can find the classrooms of Russian, Literature, Art, English and French. There are three classrooms of English. They are decorated with pictures and maps.
On the third floor there are the classrooms of Chemistry, Biology, Maths and others. We have a big computer lab there, too. There are a lot of modern computers in the lab. Pupils can make reports and prepare their homework there. The Internet access is also available for all pupils for free. Our chemistry lab is very big. During Chemistry lessons we make experiments with teacher's help. I am quite good at Chemistry and I like working in our lab a lot.
Some of our classrooms have tape-recorders, TV-sets, video- and DVD-players, so teachers show us educational films and documentaries. All classrooms are very cozy. There are a lot of flowers and posters on the walls.
There are also a lot of interesting clubs at school. I like the erudite club. We learn lots of interesting things there and develop our thinking skills. We often have competitions with other schools. We also have a handicraft club, a dancing studio and an art studio. Any pupil can be a member of this or that club. They are all free of charge.
There is a large and beautiful assembly hall on the third floor. School meetings and concerts take place there. There is a large stage and modern equipment necessary for school plays and concerts.
I really like my school and I am happy to study in it.
===========================================
My School (2)
At the age of 6 or 7 ail boys and girls go to school. I am a schoolboy as well. My school number is 121. Our school is large, airy and light. It is neither old nor new. There is a large schoolyard and a stadium. We sometimes have physical train¬ing lessons here. There are 3 floors in the school. There is a workshop on the ground floor. It is big and there are all kinds of iron-processing tools and machines here. There is also a woodwork room where we learn to make different things of wood. Another room is for girls to learn housekeeping and craft-work. It is also on the ground floor. There is a dining room you can enter from the foyer. It is next to the woodwork room. Here pupils and teachers have their breakfast and dinner. The dining room is very clean and has beautifully designed interior. There are many nice pictures on the walls and some of them are drawn by the most gifted schoolchildren. There is also a gymnasium near the dining room and the woodwork room. All pupils like to attend it because at our physical training lessons we usually play exciting sport games and have a lot of fun. There is a library on the first floor of the school building. There are a lot of old and new books there. But unfortunately there is no reading room there. The library regulations are quite strict and one cannot take more than two books at a time and keep them for more than two weeks period. There are many classrooms in the school. The English classrooms are supplied with an audio systems controlled from the teacher's desk and there are headphones provided connecting the cassette decks with the pupils' desks. There is a lot of research laboratory equipment both in the Physics and Chemistry classrooms. The Geography and History classrooms have a lot of maps and books. Every classroom has a flower-stand or some pots with beautiful home plants or flowers. The teacher's desk is usually between the pupils' ones and the blackboard. There are around twenty desks in each classroom. Some classrooms have TV sets that are used sometimes at the lessons. There is a school conference hall on the third floor where meetings, conferences and school dancing parties take place. There are also holidays celebrated and concerts and competitions of various kinds are held except the sports events, which take place in gymnasium or in the open. School theatre once in two or three months performs its plays here. The most remarkable event of the school life - the Last Bell is also celebrated here. The pupils of the first and eleventh forms prepare themselves for this day with great enthusiasm. The teacher's room is on the second floor. There are tables and armchairs for teachers to take a short rest or to do some preparations. There is a TV set with video player here and there are two computers connected with the director's and head teacher's ones. There Is also a telephone and a fax machine. The teachers' room is quite comfortable and cozy and some teachers like to spend their time there. I like my school and sometimes I think that I would like to be a teacher.
==============================================
My School (3)
I've just left school and I would like to tell you a few words about it. My school is not very big. It is quite a modern three-storeyed building. More than four nundred pupils study there. It is a specialised school famous for its high-quality education and strict discipline.
When the pupils come to school they leave their coats in the cloakroom on the ground floor. The gym, the canteen, the library and workshops are also on the ground floor. We have two workshops: one for girls, where they learn to cook, to sew and to knit, and another for boys. Our gym is large and well equipped. On the first floor there is a large assembly hall. We have our meetings there, and on some holidays parties are held there. The principal's office, the computer class and the lan¬guage laboratory are also on the first floor. Physics, chemistry and biology laboratories are on the second floor.
The classrooms for junior pupils are on the first floor, and for the seniors, on the second floor. In every classroom there are two or three rows of desks with the teacher's table in front. There is a blackboard and a bookcase. There are some pictures and maps on the walls. The language laboratory is equipped with tape-recorders for listening to English texts on tapes, a TV set and a video-player to watch teaching programmes.
I went to school six days a week. Classes began at half past eight in the morning, but I usually came to school ten minutes earlier. Each lesson lasted forty minutes. After three or four lessons we had a thirty-minute break. During this break we went to the canteen to have lunch. Every day we had six lessons, and they were over at three o'clock in the afternoon. We usually had a lot of homework and it took me several hours to do it. Sometimes I had to stay up to write a compo¬sition, to prepare a report, to translate a newspaper article from English to Russian or to learn a poem by heart.
After classes I usually didn't go home right away. We had some out-of-class activities. Our social and cultural life was well organised. For example, we had an orchestra, a choir, an arts club and an International Friendship Club. I was a member of the drama club.
At school we had classes in Russian, literature, mathematics, biology, geography, physics, chemistry, English, history, computer programming. We also had music, physical education, arts and crafts.
My favourite subject was English. I liked to learn new words, to dramatise texts and dialogues. I liked it when we discussed something interesting to us, when we were taught to debate, when we had small-group discussions or set up a role-play. But I wasn't very good at chemistry. I always failed to learn formulas and terms properly. Maybe our chemistry teacher was too serious, too academic. She was not imaginative enough and her lessons were a little bit dull. There was not enough excitement for us to get interested in the subject.
I liked my class. I always felt at home there. Everybody was so friendly and easy to get along with. I was on good terms with my classmates and we often spent our free time together.
I've just left school and I would like to tell you a few words about it. My school is not very big. It is quite a modern three-storeyed building. More than four nundred pupils study there. It is a specialised school famous for its high-quality education and strict discipline.
My Day (мой обычный день)
I want to tell you about my daily routine. On working days I usually get up at half past 7 in the morning and go to the bathroom. I wash myself, brush my teeth and comb my hair. While I am in the bathroom my mother makes breakfast for me and my brother. I usually have porridge, omelet or pancakes and a sandwich with cacao for breakfast. At half past 8 I leave home and go to school. It is not far from my house, but I don't like to be late for my classes, that's why I leave home earlier. On my way to school I often meet my classmates and friends. We talk and discuss things.
I usually have six lessons at school, sometimes seven, but never eight or nine. The first lesson starts at 9 o'clock in the morning. At school we have a lot of subjects: Math, Russian, Literature, Biology, Geography, English, Computing, Physical Education and others. We learn a lot of interesting and useful things at school. At 12 o'clock we usually have lunch at school.
After school I go back home. I have my dinner at 3 o'clock in the afternoon. After dinner I go for a walk with my friends. In winter we play hockey or snowballs, in spring and autumn we usually play football in our yard. We have a football field nearby and spend lots of time there.
After walking I come back home and start doing my homework. When I have problems with it, I ask my mother or my brother for help. My father comes back from work very late, so I ask him for help just at the week-ends. At 7 o'clock in the evening my family has supper. After supper I like to play computer games or to watch some film.
I also have a habit of reading a bit before going to bed. So I lie down in the bed at half past 9 in the evening and read up to 10 o'clock. Then I fall asleep.
That's my usual day.
My Hobbies and Pastime (Мое хобби и времяпровождение)
Hobby is what people really like to do and do in their free time. People have very different hobbies that correspond to their interests.
One of the most popular hobbies is collecting different things. Some people collect badges and stamps, some people collect bottles or flowers. There are people who collect paintings or cars.
I collected pocket flashlights when I was at primary school. I have a collection of about fifteen flashlights. I remember I used to hang them on the walls and to put on the bookshelves in the evening. I switched on all of them at the same time and was very excited because of this unusual light.
Making things with hands is another type of hobbies. This includes drawing, knitting, painting, handicraft and others. For example, my granny is fond of knitting. All over the year she knits socks and scarves for everybody in our family. Playing computer games has become a very popular hobby nowadays. Lots of my friends are addicted to their computers. My parents don't allow me to play a lot, so I can't say that this is my hobby.
My major hobby is volleyball. I attend sport school 3 times a week. We have 2 and half hours of training. I usually get very tired after it but this sport game gives a great pleasure to me.
I also like listening to music. I have a big collection of CDs with different kinds of music. My favourite genres of music are rock and reggae. I also have some favourite singers and I collect information about them.
Now I want to talk about ways of spending free time. I think that hobbies and pastime are connected with each other because you do whatever you like in your free time. As for me I go to sport school during the week so at the week-ends I mostly go out with my friends. We like to go to park. Sometimes we roller-skate there, sometimes just walk and eat some ice-cream. I think that it's very good just to walk and listen to birds singing. I like to be close to nature.
In the evenings I like to read. I like to spend a couple of hours with a new interesting book.
My Favourite Holidays and Celebrations
(Мои любимые праздники)
I want to tell you about my favourite holidays. I have quite a lot of them. I usually celebrate holidays with my relatives and friends. We gather together, lay up the table full of food, dance and play different games.
New Year is my favourite holiday since early childhood. My brother and I usually decorate a New Year tree with colourful glass balls and toys. I also like cooking New Year supper. I always help my mother to decorate New Year dishes. At night we have a real feast. We eat what we have cooked and watch TV. After clock strikes midnight, New Year comes. We drink champagne and give each other presents.
My other favourite celebration is my birthday which is in May. On this day I am in the centre of attention. My parents and friends give me presents. If the weather is nasty I have a birthday party at home. If the weather is fine I invite my friends to have picnic in the forest. I invite close friends and we have fun together.
I also like St.Valentirie's Day, which is a new holiday in Russia. It is celebrated on the 14-th of February. I like this holiday because it gives a lot of fun. We have Love mail at school. A box is placed on the ground floor of the building and anybody can put into it a card with the name of the person it is addressed to and the number of the form. In the middle of the day the mail is delivered and it is nice to get a card from a person you don't know.
I really enjoy holidays and celebrations!


My Favourite Writer
(Мой любимый писатель)
I believe that books are one of the greatest wonders in the world. Books are the way to live hundreds of lives and to have thousands of adventures being at home. The work of my fantasy and imagination while reading is what makes me happy. I started reading myself at 5 years old. But first books that impressed me deeply were read to me by my mother. These are fairy tales of Christian Andersen and forest short stories of Vitalij Bianki.
If somebody asks me about my favourite writer I won't probably find the answer. Every book that I read becomes the best one for me for the time of reading. Usually I try to read the books of one author one by one. In such a way I can understand his thoughts, images, ideas and the writing manner better.
At the moment I become acquainted with the works of John Fowles. John Fowles is an English novelist and essayist, master of layered story-telling, illusionism, and purposefully ambiguous endings. His first novel, and the first that I read, “The Collector” , is a study of a clerk who is psychologically impelled to kidnap and murder. “The French Lieutenant's Woman” is a “Victorian” novel that has three endings. It reflects contemporary self-consciousness about nineteenth-century England and the form of the novel itself. I really enjoyed the works of John Fowles and for the time being I am going to start his book “The Magus”.
My Biography (Моя биография)
The topic that is given to me is «My biography». It sounds too meaningful. It means something very important. I am sorry to say that there is little to speak about my short past life. I am too young to have my own family, I am not married yet. My name is Sergey. My last name is Petrov. The patronymic is Vadimovich. So my full name is Sergey Vadimovich Petrov. I am seventeen years old. I was born on the twelfth of June. I am a former pupil. I left school a month ago. I did not attend any nursery or kindergarten. I began to go to school at the age of six. It was eleven years ago. I had been studying at the same school for eleven years running without changing it. We had many subjects: history, English, biology and many others. I liked to study at school and my impressions of it are rather pleasant. My favorite subjects are English and informatics. On the English lessons we read and translate the text and learn new words. On the informatics lessons we write the pro¬grams. That is why I choose English examination.
My School (Учебный день)
At the age of 6 or 7 ail boys and girls go to school. I am a schoolboy as well. My school number is 121. Our school is large, airy and light. It is neither old nor new. There is a large schoolyard and a stadium. We sometimes have physical train¬ing lessons here. There are 3 floors in the school. There is a workshop on the ground floor. It is big and there are all kinds of iron-processing tools and machines here. There is also a woodwork room where we learn to make different things of wood. Another room is for girls to learn housekeeping and craft-work. It is also on the ground floor. There is a dining room you can enter from the foyer. It is next to the woodwork room. Here pupils and teachers have their breakfast and dinner. The dining room is very clean and has beautifully designed interior. There are many nice pictures on the walls and some of them are drawn by the most gifted schoolchildren. There is also a gymnasium near the dining room and the woodwork room. All pupils like to attend it because at our physical training lessons we usually play exciting sport games and have a lot of fun. There is a library on the first floor of the school building. There are a lot of old and new books there. But unfortunately there is no reading room there. The library regulations are quite strict and one cannot take more than two books at a time and keep them for more than two weeks period. There are many classrooms in the school. The English classrooms are supplied with an audio systems controlled from the teacher's desk and there are headphones provided connecting the cassette decks with the pupils' desks. There is a lot of research laboratory equipment both in the Physics and Chemistry classrooms. The Geography and History classrooms have a lot of maps and books. Every classroom has a flower-stand or some pots with beautiful home plants or flowers. The teacher's desk is usually between the pupils' ones and the blackboard. There are around twenty desks in each classroom. Some classrooms have TV sets that are used sometimes at the lessons. There is a school conference hall on the third floor where meetings, conferences and school dancing parties take place. There are also holidays celebrated and concerts and competitions of various kinds are held except the sports events, which take place in gymnasium or in the open. School theatre once in two or three months performs its plays here. The most remarkable event of the school life - the Last Bell is also celebrated here. The pupils of the first and eleventh forms prepare themselves for this day with great enthusiasm. The teacher's room is on the second floor. There are tables and armchairs for teachers to take a short rest or to do some preparations. There is a TV set with video player here and there are two computers connected with the director's and head teacher's ones. There Is also a telephone and a fax machine. The teachers' room is quite comfortable and cozy and some teachers like to spend their time there. I like my school and sometimes I think that I would like to be a teacher.
My Day Off (Выходной день)
On weekdays I usually go to school, but on my days off I rest. I hate getting up early in the morning, and on my week¬ends I can afford to get up a bit later than usual, because I don't have to hurry anywhere. As a rule at our leisure time we go in for sports, read the books, go to the cinema, theatre, park, museum or exhibition. Sometimes we go to the zoo or circus and enjoy ourselves watching animals. We try to spend most of the time out-of-doors. Some people prefer to go to the country to see their relatives and friends. In winter we like to go to the forest to ski or to the skating-rink to skate. After having such a pleasant rest in the open air, you are happy to come home and have a rest sitting near the TV set and watching an interesting TV programs. In summer and spring picnics are popular with schoolchildren and students. Children are fond of picnics chiefly because they have an excellent opportunity to admire the beauty of nature, to run and play games, to have a bite without observing table manners. But the most exciting event is making a fire. They are fond of collecting wood and sitting round the fire. And again, children like to return home after having a picnic. Now they think that «There is no place like home», as the saying goes. As for me, my days off are normally like this. I get-up at 9 o'clock, do my morning exercises, wash my face and hands and brush my teeth. After having breakfast I relax a little: listen to a lovely stereo music and try to forget about all my problems. Then I can visit my friends and have a chat with them about our school life. Sometimes my friends and I go to the museum or art exhibition. As a rule, my activities on weekends depend on my plans, but in any case I manage to do a lot of things and have a real rest. I always try to do my best to have a good time. But unfortunately time flies very quickly on weekends, and the next Monday morning comes, and I am looking forward to my next days off.
Hobbies (Увлечения)
Hobbies differ like tastes. If you have chosen a hobby according to your character and taste - you are lucky because your life becomes more interesting. Hobbies are divided into four large classes: doing things, making things, collecting things, and learning things. The most popular of all hobby groups is doing things. It includes a wide variety of activities, everything from gardening to traveling and from chess to volleyball. Gardening is one of the oldest man's hobbies. It is well-known fact that the English are very found of gardening and growing flowers, especially roses. Both grown-ups and children are found of playing different computer games. This is a relatively new hobby but it is becoming more and more popular. Making things includes drawing, making sculptures, designing costumes, handicrafts and others. Two of the most famous hobby painters were President Eisenhower and Sir Winston Churchill. Some hobbyists write music or play musical instruments. Ex-president Bill Clinton, for example, plays on the saxophone. Almost everyone collects something at some period in his life: stamps, coins, matchboxes, books, records, postcards, toys, watches and other things. Some collection have not real value. Others become so large and so valuable that they are housed in museums and art galleries. Many world famous collections started in a small way with one or two items. People with a good deal of money often collect paintings, rare books and other art objects. Often such private collections are given to museums, libraries and public galleries so that others might take pleasure in seeing them. No matter what kind of hobby a person has, he always has the opportunity of learning from it. By reading about the things he is interested in, he is adding to what he knows. Learning things can be the most exciting aspect of a hobby. So I think that everyone should have a hobby, it is like the target of your life.
My Household Chores (Помошь по дому)
Doing household chores is a necessary part of our life. People all over the world try to work hard. They usually have a lot of duties. I have a lot of duties, too. My parents are often tired and I must take care of them. Everybody is happy when the home is always bright and clean. Day after day I can have fun when I do my household chores. I sweep the floor, tidy my room, clean the shoes, dust the furniture, make food myself and do every kind of work. It's not easy to do every kind of work at home, but I can learn to do everything myself. When I do my household chores well, everybody in the family is happy. If I have a holiday party at home, I can help my mother and grandmother a lot. How happy mother is to see everything bright! It's a nice present for my parents to tidy the house! It's wonderful to make people happy! If I have time, my mother asks me to go to the shop. I go there and buy bread, eggs and sugar. Very often I go to the market with my mother. We buy some vegetables and fruits. Then I help my mother to carry them. My mother cooks well; sometimes I help her when she makes cakes. She usually makes them before holidays and on my birthday. We have got a country house. There is a big garden with many trees, bushes and flowers in it. There is a lot of work in our garden and I help my parents to do it. We must do our household chores, because if we hadn't done it our flat would look like a trash can. I usually clean my flat on Friday. First of all I clean with duster table, piano, some boxes, TV, lamp and many other things. At second I clean with vacuum cleaner carpet in my room, then I clean carpet in mother's and father's room. I usually wash the floor in all rooms. Then I wash bath-shell with «Pemolux». Later I wash stove with «Fairy». Every day I must feed my cat. It is very big and fat. I cook a fish soup I to it. After supper I always wash plates and dishes. Sometimes I cook myself, but my cookies up aren't so nice as mother's. I think I make an impact in tiding our place. It is necessary to help the parents. Try to make people happy and you will be happy yourself!
My Room
We live in a new flat in one of the residential areas of our city. It is a three-room flat of a typical block of flats with a lift and rubbish chute. Our flat is on the fifth floor. As you enter our flat, you find yourself in a small entrancehall, and from there you can go to the rooms: the living room, my parent's bedroom and my room. I use my room as a study and a bedroom. My room is a very comfortable one. It has its advantages, though it is the smallest room in our flat. The only window in my room faces the green park, which is situated near our house. It is so nice to look out of the window in a bright sunny day! The view is really wonderful. The walls of my room are papered in a design of gray and silver strips and the curtains on the window match the wallpaper perfectly. The built-in furniture doesn't take much space in it. There is a writing table with a reading-lamp on it. I always keep there my notes, textbooks, pens and pencils, booklets, posters, pads, newspapers, magazines and other necessary for me things. There is a built-in wardrobe in the right-hand corner of the room with coat hangers to hang clothes on. Opposite the wardrobe there is a bookcase full of books, journals and newspapers. Near the writing-table there is a standard lamp with a pink silk shade. On the little table there is a stereo cassette recorder. You see, I am fond of music and often enjoy listening to the lovely melody. My divan-bed stands near the standard lamp. There are two water-colors and my portrait on the wall above the divan-bed. The floor in my room is covered with a thick carpet. Besides, I grow a lot of flowers in my room. You can see them everywhere: on the windowsill, on the bookcase, on the little table, on the walls. I take care of the flowers and water them regularly. To cut the long story short, I should admit that my room is very attractive and I like it very much.
My Best Friend
Speaking about my best friend I'd like to mention a famous proverb said by Robert Stevenson that «No man is useless while he has a friend». And I entirely agree with it. To be a real friend means to be able to share all happiness and hardships, be able to help and understand. But sometimes it is hard to find the one who is modest, faithful, reliable, and sincere at the same time. As for me I have a few true friends and I'd like to tell about one of them. His name is Vasya, he is fifteen years old and he is my classmate. I like the way he looks. The first thing you notice when you see him is his blue clever eyes. He has curly hair combed back. I think he is rather attractive both in his appearance and his character. In my opinion Vasya is a determined kind of person, who possesses an ability for quick-decision making. Judging by his deeds I'm sure that he is resolute and firm, but sometimes too pedantic. He isn't an easygoing kind of person: it seems that he is in the habit of thinking of every word he says. His friends think that because of his ambitions it seems that Vasya is too conceited. Nevertheless he is always in the mood of joking. Joking he never tries to insult people: his jokes are always pertinent. Vasya is just that kind of person to spend good time with: he is well-read, good educated, his interests are wide and various. In my opinion we have much in common, so it's easy for us to find what to talk about. We both listen to the same music, read adventure books and are fond of football. We got acquainted nine years ago and knowing features and drawbacks of all each other we still remain close friends.
My Girlfriend (Моя подруга)
I'm not a very sociable person. To my mind, it's not obliged for people to have a lot of friends in order to be happy. It's enough, as I think, to have one or two friends who are able to understand you and to support you in hard situations. So, there are few people whom I can call friends. We have much in common and we enjoy communicating with each other. One of my friends is Natalie. She is eighteen. I can say that she is beautiful and smart girl. She left school 2 years ago and now she is a second year student of the University. Natalie wants to be a journalist. She studies well because she is greatly interested in her future profession. Natalie is a hardworking girl too. I admire this feature of her character because I don't have it. Natalie does not have much free time but if she has, she likes to spend it in a good company, consisting of her school friends. When we gather together we like to listen to music, both classical and modem one, to watch new films and discuss them. I enjoy talking to her a lot because she knows many interesting facts about famous people, history. Her favorite subjects at school were history and literature. She is fond of reading. Books have become part of her life. We have been being friends for a long time. We trust each other so much that we have some personal secrets, which are not revealed to the others. I can tell her about my troubles and I am sure that Natalie would help me and give me a piece of good advice. Natalie is an intelligent person. She has a deep and genuine interest in people, open-mindedness and inquiring mind. It is necessary for her as a journalist. I'm happy to have such a good friend as Natalie.
My Future Career (Моя будущая профессия)
I'm sure that choosing a career isn't an easy matter. Nowadays there is a great variety of profes¬sions such as a doctor, an economist, a lawyer and it is hard to choose a one which suits your interests and abilities. As for me I have made up my mind to become a lawyer. I think that justice is the most important in the modern world, and besides I'm fond of arguing and discussing different topics. But I'm still hesitating whether it is good to choose a ca¬reer while Pm at school. On one hand it gives me an opportunity to find the necessary course of study and pay more attention to the subjects which will be of great value for me in future. More than that I can attend optional courses in order to get profound knowledge in sciences and humanities. At school I have wonderful possibilities to develop the personal qualities such as understanding, the ability to listen to, to help people and persistence in achieving the aim. Pm sure such qualities will help me to succeed as a lawyer. On the other hand choosing a career at school may force me to a career path before I realize my real interests and abilities. As for my interests they change every year but I hope my desire to become a lawyer will not change in future. As for me choosing a career isn't only a matter of future prestige and wealth. In my opinion job must be inte-resting and socially important. The profession of lawyer gives me plenty of opportunities to help people in trouble. When I have been choosing a career I consulted nobody, but as for my parents they appreciate my wish to become a lawyer. I hope their support and encouragement will help me to make the final decision. I understand, my wish isn't enough to become a good lawyer. I must be well-educated and broad-minded. And English language will be of great importance for me in it. With the help of English language I can get acquainted with the works of other foreign writers and their works on philosophy and logic. Besides it gives me a unique chance to communicate with my future foreign colleagues and probably exchange experience. So I think that it is very important for me to think about the future I even now because according to a famous saying «If you don't think about your future you can't have one».
Introducing Yourself (Моя визитная карточка)
Let me introduce myself. My name is Anne. My surname is Petrova. I am seventeen years old. My birthday is September 11. I 1ive in Saint Petersburg with my family. Our family is quite big: there are five of us - father, mother, brother, sister and me. We are a very united family.
I am a pupil in the eleventh form of a secondary school. I finish school this year. I want to enter the university. That is why I have to study twice as hard as an ordinary pupil does. I do not only do my best at school; I also attend a preparatory course at the university.
As you can understand, I'm rather a busy person. But when I have some free time in the evening, I like to read a good book. My favourite Russian writer is Anton Chekhov. As I'm studying English, I read a lot of books by English authors. I try to read them in English, but this is not always easy. When there is a good film on TV, I watch it with all my family. I also like music, classical as well as modern. I have a tape-recorder and I like to listen to some tapes when I am doing my homework, but my parents think it is bad for my work.
I have more free time during weekends. I like to spend this time with my family. Sometimes we all go to the cinema, or to some concert. In winter we go skiing or just walk in the country.
As I've said before, I plan to enter the university next year. I am quite good at English, and I am interested in the culture of Great Britain, USA and other English-speaking countries, so I want to go on with English at the University. I do not know exactly what I will do after graduating from the university, but I'm sure I'll find a good Job as an interpreter or a teacher or something like that, because the English language is very popular now and everybody needs it.
Curriculum Vitae (Резюме)
NAME: Anna Petrova.
DATE OF BIRTH: 11 September 1979.
ADDRESS: Pushkinskaya street, 40/12. TELEPHONE NUMBER: 321-18-44.
MARITAL STATUS: single.
HEALTH: excellent.
EDUCATION: 1986-1996 - secondary school № 38 (specialization in ...); 1996 - secretarial courses (typing, computer literl асу, business correspondence). Now I am a student at the Foreign Languages Department at the University.
WORKING EXPERIENCE: 1995-1996 - private teacher (English); 1996-1997 - ABC company, secretary.
OTHER QUALIFICATIONS: communicative English; Word, Excel for Windows-95.
HOBBIES: knitting, skiing.
REFERENCES: the following people have offered to write references for me:
Natalia B. Ivanova, teacher of English, school № 38, tel. no. 333-12-14;
Sergey T. Govorov, principal, secretarial-courses, tel. no. 211-18-23;
Nikolai V. Mishin, manager, ABC company, tel. no. 143-84-06. .
2. Россия - мой дом
My Country (Моя страна)
I want to tell you about my country. Russia is the largest country in the world. It covers eastern part of Europe and northern part of Asia. Total area of Russia is about seventeen million square kilometres with the population of about 145 million people.
The official name of Russia is the Russian Federation. The colours of the national flag are white, blue and red. Russia's state emblem is a double headed eagle. The country is a parliamentary republic, which means that the President is the Head of the state. The main law of the country is the Constitution. It guarantees the rights of the citizens.
The country is washed by twelve seas and three oceans: the Pacific Ocean in the east, the Arctic Ocean in the north and the Atlantic Ocean in the west. Russia borders on many countries: China, Georgia, Finland, Norway, Byelorussia, Ukraine and others. The landscape of Russia is varied. There are highlands in the east, steppes in the south, plains and forests in the midland, the tundra and the taiga in the north.
There are several mountain chains in my country, too: the Urals, the Caucasus, the Altai and others. The largest chain is the Urals which separates Russia's European part from its Asian part.
Russia is rich in rivers and lakes. The Volga which flows into the Caspian Sea is the longest river in Russia. Lake Baikal is the deepest lake in the world.
There are different types of climate on the territory of Russia it is very cold in the north, even in summer. In the central part of the country winters are usually cold, summers are very warm. The climate of Siberia is continental: summers are hot and dry, winters are very cold and snowy. In the south of Russia the temperature is usually above zero all year round, even in winter.
Russia is an industrial country. It has a lot of mineral resources: coal, natural gas and iron. There are a lot of large factories and plants all over the country. Russia is also an agricultural country. Russians plant corn, fruit and vegetables.
Russia has a very rich history. It is an ancient country with a lot of historic places of interest, big cultural centres and small towns. There are a lot of museums, theatres, cinemas, libraries, restaurants and clubs in big Russian cities. Such cities are usually noisy with heavy traffic in the streets and are full of smoke.
The capital of Russia is Moscow. Moscow is one of the biggest cities in Europe with the population more than ten million people. The second largest city in Russia is St. Petersburg. This is a city of numerous monuments, museums and art galleries. The city is on the Neva River.
Russia is a great country with a great culture, I love my country.
Moscow(1) Москва
I would like to tell you about Moscow.
Moscow is the capital of Russia. The city was founded in 1147 on the Moskva River by Prince Yuri Dolgoruki. In the 16-th century Tsar Ivan the Terrible made Moscow the capital of the country.
Today Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world. It is a big political, economic and cultural centre of Russia. The total area of Moscow is about nine hundred square kilometres and the population is about eleven million people.
The centre of Moscow is Red Square, which is the most popular sight for tourists. It is a place for parades, demonstrations and meetings. In Red Square there is St. Basil's Cathedral, a masterpiece of Russian architecture, erected in memory of Russia's victory over the Kazan Kingdom in the 16-th century. Tourists can see the monument to Minin and Pozharsky in front of the Cathedral. It is the oldest monument in Moscow built in memory of the victory over the Polish invaders. The State History Museum is situated opposite St. Basil's Cathedral. It is one of the biggest museums in Moscow.
On the territory of the Kremlin, which is the heart of Moscow, there are old cathedrals, the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great, the Palace of Congress, the Tsar Cannon and the Tsar Bell, the biggest cannon and bell in the world. The tallest tower, the Spasskaya lower, is the symbol of the Kremlin. Alexandrovsky Garden with the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is a memorial to the soldiers died in World War II.
Moscow is a big cultural centre of Russia. There are a lot of cinemas, clubs, concert halls, numerous drama and musical theatres, including world famous ones like the Bolshoi Theatre and the Maly Theatre.
The city is proud of its museums and art galleries, too. The biggest museum is the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, which has one of the world's largest collections of ancient, oriental and classical art. The Tretyakov Gallery is famous all over the world. It has a great collection of works by Russian artists. The Gallery is 150 years old.
Moscow is a large educational centre with a lot of schools, institutes, colleges and universities. The biggest university is Moscow State University named after Lomonosov which is on the Vorobyovy Hills. Students from all over the world come to Moscow to study at this University.
Muscovites are fond of going in for sport, that is why there are a lot of stadiums, swimming pools and sport grounds in the city.
Moscow has large green parks where people walk and spend weekends. The biggest among them are: Gorky Park, Izmailovski Park and Sokolniki Park.
Moscow changes every day. This is a city of contrasts and one should definitely come and visit Moscow.
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Moscow(2)
Moscow is the capital of Russia, its political, economic, commercial and cultural centre. It was founded 8 centuries ago by Prince Yuri Dolgoruky. Historians have accepted the year of 1147 as the start of Moscow's history. Gradually the city became more and more powerful. In the 13th century Moscow was the centre of the struggle by Russian lands for the liberation from the Tartar Yoke. In the 16th century under Ivan the Terrible Moscow became the capital of the new united state. Though Peter the Great moved the capital to St. Petersburg in 1712, Moscow remained the heart of Russia. That is why it became the main target of Napoleon's attack. Three quarters of the city was destroyed by fire during Napoleon's occupation, but by the mid 19th century Moscow had been completely restored. After the October revolution Moscow became the Capital again.
Now Moscow is one of the largest cities in Europe. Its total area is about nine hundred square kilometres (ancient Moscow occupied the territory of the present-day Kremlin). The population of the city is about 9 million.
The heart of Moscow is Red Square, the central and the most beautiful square in Moscow. Here one can see the Cathedral of St. Basil the Blessed, or St. Basil's cathedral, erected by architects Postnik and Barma to commemorate Russia's conquest of the Kingdom of Kazan in 1552. It is a masterpiece of Russian architecture. Tourists can see the monument to Minin and Pozharsky. In was designed by Ivan Martos in 1818 in memory of the Russian victory over the Polish invaders in 1612. The History Museum in Red Square is a magnificent building. Besides, it is one of the major scientific and educational institutions where we can follow the life of the Russian people since ancient times.
But first of all everybody knows Red Square because the Kremlin is situated there. The Kremlin is the oldest historical and architectural centre of Moscow. Its three magnificent cathedrals, the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great, the palaces and Spassky Tower with the clock attract the tourists' attention The Czar-cannon and the Czar-bell, the biggest cannon and bell in the world, are also in the Kremlin.
There are other beautiful palaces, old mansions, cathedrals, churches and monuments in Moscow.
Moscow is also famous for its museums. At the Tretyakov Gallery paintings by Great Russian artists are collected, and at the Museum of Fine Arts there are masterpieces by European painters.
There are a lot of theatres in Moscow. The best-known of them is the Bolshoi Opera House, but drama theatres and studios are popular too.
Moscow was the host to the XXII Summer Olympic Games in 1980. It has a number of sportsgrounds and stadiums built or reconstructed for that event.
Moscow has the oldest Russian university, founded in 1755 by Lomonosov. Its new building was opened in 1953. It is 32 storeys high.
The Metro, opened in 1935, is being constantly extended. Now it has 200 stations and is almost 340 kilometres long. It is one of the tourist attractions of the Russian capital.
The number of new streets increases every month. The longest of them is Leningradsky Prospect. It runs for 15 kilometres.
Moscow is the seat of the Russian Parliament (the Duma) and the centre of the political life of the country.
Yaroslavl (Ярославль)
Yaroslavl is an ancient city to the north of Moscow. It was founded in 1010 by Prince Yaroslav the Wise. There is an old beautiful legend about the foundation of Yaroslavl. Once Prince Yaroslav with his warriors came to the place where the Kotorosl River flowed into the Volga. The Prince liked the place, but the pagans who lived there didn't like this invasion and let their sacred bear kill the Prince, but Yaroslav fought against the sacred animal and killed it with his pole axe. Then he founded the fortress and it was called Yaroslavl and the coat of arms of the town was a bear with a pole axe on its shoulder.
Yaroslavl has the rich historic past. It saw the Tatar invasion, the Polish intervention, was damaged during the Revolution and suffered a lot. But in spite of all these difficult periods of history it has remained magnificently beautiful and it is one of the greatest attractions for tourists. Yaroslavl is one of the cities of the Golden Ring of Russia. Every day a lot of tourists come to visit this ancient Russian city and admire its wonderful cathedrals, monasteries, churches and the famous embankment.
The first Russian theatre was built in Yaroslavl by Feodor Volkov. Yaroslavl is a big industrial city. Big plants and factories produce engines, paints, oil, tires, and other important things. The first in the world plant producing synthetic rubber was built in Yaroslavl, too.
When we speak about this city we can't help mentioning Valentina Tereshkova, the first woman cosmonaut, who was born there.
In 2005 Yaroslavl became a member of UNESCO because of its wonderful architecture and rich history.
Russian Holidays and Traditions (Праздники и традиции России)
Every country has customs and traditions. I want to tell you about some holidays and traditions of my country.
Russians really love holidays. We usually celebrate them with a lot of food, presents and in big companies of relatives and friends.
There are three types of holidays in Russia. They are family holidays, state holidays and religious holidays.
Let me tell you about family holidays first. They include birthdays, anniversaries, weddings and others. Each family has its own traditions of celebrating this or that holiday. For example, my family celebrates my birthday for two days. On the first day I celebrate it with my parents, grandparents, my uncle and aunt. The second day of celebration is only for my close friends. They usually come in a big group with a lot of presents. I like my birthday very much.
State or public holidays in Russia include Constitution Day, New Year's Day, the International Women's Day, May Day, Victory Day and Russia Day. During these holidays, people do not work. They spend time with their families and friends or go to the centre of big cities to celebrate there. Banks, companies and some shops do not work on these days either.
New Year's Day is the major holiday in Russia. We put up a New Year tree and decorate it with colourful toys and glass balls. The main fir-tree of the country is put up in the State Kremlin Palace. Small fir trees are put up in shop windows, in streets and squares, even on roofs of buildings. A lot of people like buying natural fir trees, others prefer plastic ones. Children like the holiday a lot. They can stay up late and then get their presents. At ten minutes to midnight on the 31-st of December families gather in front of the TV-set and watch the president making his traditional speech. After the clock on the main tower of the Kremlin strikes midnight, everybody says Happy New Year and drinks champagne. After that the time for presents comes. Russian children believe that Father Frost brings presents. After all the presents are given out, Russians have fun, drink, eat, and play games all night long.
Victory Day is a very important holiday for Russian history. On this day we remember those who protected our country from the German invaders during World War II. A great parade is held on this day in Red Square. Numerous war and patriotic films are shown on television. On this day people congratulate veterans and give them flowers.
The so-called religious holidays include Christmas, Easter and others. There is also a pagan holiday - Shrovetide or Pancake Day. These holidays are not state, so people usually work and study on these days. At Shrovetide, people see spring in, eat pancakes and burn a scarecrow, which symbolizes winter.
Russian Christmas is celebrated on the 7-th of January, but there is no exact date for Easter, it is different every year.
Nowadays foreign celebrations are becoming more and more popular in Russia. They are Halloween and St. Valentine's Day. On Halloween Day some clubs organize parties and masquerades. St. "Valentine's Day is mostly popular with young people. They usually buy presents for their girlfriends and boyfriends such as chocolate and sweets and make greeting cards in the shape of a heart.
I like Russian holidays and look forward to celebrating each of them!

Education in Russia (1) (Образование в России)
Every Russian citizen has the right to free education. Before going to school children may go to nursery schools or kindergartens. At the age of six children start going to school. First they go to primary school where they learn to read, write and count. Primary school finishes in the 3-rd form. Then pupils go to secondary school. After the 9-th form pupils take school exams and get a school certificate. After it they can choose either to stay at school or go to a college to get a profession. Most pupils stay at school and finish it with a school diploma which allows them to enter an institution of higher education.
After finishing school pupils can go on to higher education. There are a lot of institutes and universities in Russia. They offer various departments which an entrant can choose according to his or her abilities. It is difficult to enter an institute. Entrants should attend university courses and then pass entrance exams. Nowadays a new examination system is being introduced. The so-called General State Exam allows pupils to enter any Russian university if they get good and excellent marks for it. This system hasn't been settled yet, but in some regions of Russia it works already. Pupils take this examination after the 11-th form.
Students in Russian universities usually have five years of studies. At the end of every semester students have an examination session and take exams. If students pass the exams well they get a scholarship paid by the government. In most universities and institutes graduates have to pass State exams and defend their final project. After graduating from an institution of higher education they can continue studies and enter a post-graduate school. After defending a dissertation they get a Master's Degree. In medical universities students usually study for 6 years.
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Education in Russian Federation(2)
In Russian Federation children begin going to school at the age of seven. First they study at the elementary school. It lasts three or four years. At the elementary school children get the elementary education, they learn to read, write and count. From the fifth form the secondary education begins. Children begin to learn different subjects, such as literature, chemistry, physics, biology, computing, foreign languages and so on. The nine-year secondary education is compulsory in our country, but after completing the nine-year schooling pupils face the first serious decision in their lives. They have to decide either to continue their studies in the tenth and eleventh forms at a general secondary school, or to transfer to specialized colleges, that is to say, choose a particular career. Colleges give young people a secondary education plus trade training. This means that after finishing a college they are educated and financially independent, able to go straight to a job. Except general secondary schools there are a lot of specialized schools, where more attention is paid to a particular subject, mostly to a foreign language. Besides, there are many private schools now, where the education is not free of charge» After finishing school or college young people may enter institute or university to get the higher education. After finishing the fourth course they get the bachelor's degree and after graduating from the postgraduate course - the master's degree. To study is not an easy thing, of course, but nowadays it is quite necessary to be highly skilled and educated specialist.
Russian Sports
There are many popular kinds of sport in Russia. They are: hockey, skating, figure skating, skiing, football, swimming, running, judo and others. There are many stadiums, sport clubs, gyms and swimming-pools now. Many national and international matches and championships take place in Russia. The most important sports events are broadcast live from the stadiums. Numerous people come to watch the games, others prefer to do this at home watching special sports channels.
Water kinds of sport are popular in our country. These include swimming, diving, water skiing and boating. Fishing is very popular in all parts of Russia, too.
Football is one of the most popular sports in the country. There are several football clubs and football fans not only come to watch matches, but play football themselves. Hockey is very popular, too.
Russia is famous for its chess players, tennis players and figure-skaters. At the 2006 Turin Olympic Games our country won several gold medals in figure skating.
Physical education is one of the main subjects in Russian schools now. During the lessons pupils play different sports games, take part in school, district and city sports competitions.
Such sports activities as bowling and billiards have become very popular with the Russians, especially young ones. Such indoor games are played in sports centres and clubs.
Even though many Russian people do not have time for going in for sport, they still find some hours to do sports activities.
Russia
The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. It occupies about one seventh of the earth's surface. Russia covers the eastern part of Europe and the northern part of Asia. Its total area is about 17 million square kilometers. The country is washed by 12 seas of 3 oceans: the Pacific, the Arctic and the Atlantic. In the south Russia borders on China, Mongolia, Korea, Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan. In the west it borders on Norway, Finland, the Baltic States, Belorussia, and the Ukraine. It also has a sea border with the USA.
The population of Russia is 145.5 million people. 83 per cent are Russians. There are 1030 towns and cities in Russia. Moscow is the capital and the biggest city with a population of about 9 million people.
There is hardly a country in the world where such a variety of scenery and vegetation can be found. We have steppes in the south, plains and forests in the central region, tundra and taiga in the north, highlands and deserts in the east.
Russia is located on two plains. They are the Great Russian Plain and the West Siberian Lowland. There are several moun¬tain chains on the territory of the country: the Urals, the Caucasus, the Altai and others. The largest mountain chain, the Urals, separates Europe from Asia.
Russia is a land of long rivers and deep lakes. There are over two million rivers in our country. The broad Volga River system is of great historic, economic and cultural importance to the country. It became the cradle of such ancient towns as Vladimir, Tver, Yaroslavl, Kazan, and Nizhny Novgorod. Volga is Europe's biggest river. It runs into the Caspian Sea which is in fact the largest lake in the world. The main Siberian rivers - the Ob, the Yenisei and the Lena - flow from south to north. The Amur in the Par East flows into the Pacific Ocean.
Russia is rich in beautiful lakes. The world's deepest lake (1600 metres) is Lake Baikal. It is much smaller than the Baltic I Sea, but there is much more water in it than in the Baltic Sea. The water in the lake is so clear that if you look down you can count the stones on the bottom.
Russia has one sixth of the world's forests. They are concen¬trated in the European north of the country, in Siberia and m the Far East.
Over the vast territory of the country there are various types of climate, from arctic in the north to subtropical in the south. But the temperate zone with four seasons prevails. Winters are cold and windy with a lot of snow. Summers are rather hot and dry. In Siberia the temperature in winter falls to 50 degrees below zero. The coldest registered temperature was 70 degrees.
The animal world in the north includes the walrus, the seal, the polar bear and the polar fox. In the central zone there are a lot of wolves and foxes, hares and squirrels. The famous Russian furs come from the sable, mink and ermine. The brown bear of the Russian forests is a kind of symbol of Russia.
Russia is very rich in oil, coal, iron ore, natural gas, copper, nickel and other mineral resources. Three quarters of the country's minerals, oil and natural gas, coal, gold and diamonds come from Siberia.
The Russian Federation is a Presidential Republic. The federal government consists of three branches: legislative, executive and judicial. The legislative powers are exercised by the Federal Assembly. It consists of two chambers: the Council of Federation and the State Duma. The executive power belongs to the government which is headed by the Prime Minister. The judicial branch is represented by the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and regional courts. All three branches are controlled by the President.
Today the flag of Russia is a three-coloured banner. The hymn of Russia is written by A. Alexandrov and S. Mikhalkov. A new national emblem is the two-headed eagle, the most ancient symbol of Russia.
Russia is very rich in oil, coal, iron ore, natural gas, copper, nickel and other mineral resources. Three quarters of the country's minerals, oil and natural gas, coal, gold and diamonds come from Siberia.
There are a lot of opportunities for our country to become one of the leading countries in the world. I'm sure that we, the younger generation, can do a lot to make Russia as strong and powerful as she used to be.
Russia - a Market-oriented Economy (Россия - страна с рыночной экономикой)
The assertion that Russia is a market-oriented economy has evoked doubt in the minds of many. The European Commission, Economics Ministers in various countries, and indeed numerous Russian economists themselves, have resisted Russia being accorded that status. They have taken the view that Russia is possibly on the way to being a market-oriented economy - but that it is too early to talk of our country joining a system with that kind of immunity-based" relationships. The fact is, however, that as of 1st April 2002 Russia has been formally accorded the status of "market-oriented economy".
The trend towards a market-oriented economy commenced with the disintegration of the Soviet Union. For 70 years the country had been run according to the dictates of totalitarian economics. The Soviet Union's economy was directed primarily towards strengthening the country's military might. The whole of industry was controlled and financed by the State: privately-run concerns were out of the question. Private initiative was either eradicated or allowed to exist only in the tight grip of the State's ideology. Any other form of economic activity, apart from that of a "state enterprise" or (to a certain extent) "cooperatives'', was prosecuted. For the most part industrial products did not meet the demands of the consumer either in quality or in quantity. The isolation of the Soviet economy from that of the rest of the world also harmed it greatly.
This all resulted in the need to reform the economy by introducing the principles of "market economics" - on the basis of "khozraschot" (plant-based financing) and "samookupayemosf" (product-based financing) within industry itself. During the 1980s a number of political changes were carried out, but these proved ineffective because of opposition from conservative elements. However, the 1991 "putsch" forced Russia to break with its past. With the collapse of the USSR a great number of problems emerged in the economy of Russia. The fact was that the economies of Russia and the constituent republics of the former USSR, together with those of the "socialist" countries of Eastern Europe, represented a unified system, fim» its disintegration greatly multiplied those economic problems.
Major changes have taken place over the past; 10-16 years. Various economic projects have been put forward, and numer¬ous economic reforms carried out. Some of these proved successful, others less so. The first symptoms of a market-oriented economy developing in Russia were the emergence of privately, run enterprises and the gradual spread of individual businesses.

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 Бунин Иван Алексеевич